|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 210-213
Dental traumatic injuries among sports personnel of central India
Vidhatri Tiwari1, Vrinda Saxena1, Utkarsh Tiwari2, Aishwarya Singh3, Manish Jain1, Anupriya Singh4
1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's Dental Academy, People's University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Prosthodontics, People's Dental Academy, People's University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
4 Department Prosthodontics, Peoples Dental Academy, People's University, People's College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||2-Sep-2015|
Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's Dental Academy, People's University, Bhanpur, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
Aim: Assess the prevalence of traumatic teeth injury among sports personnel of central India including contact and non contact sports. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all professional sports personnel to assess the traumatic tooth injury among sportspersons in Bhopal city. Clinical examination was done using Ellis And Dewis Classification Of traumatic injuries and Angle's Classification Of Malocclusion. Result: Out of 320 sportspersons, 54(16.8%) subjects had anterior tooth injuries. majority of contact sports personnel 15(9%) had 4-6 number of traumatic teeth injury as compare to non contact sports 4(2.5%). Similarly in all the other segments contact sports personnel has more number of teeth injured as compare to non contact sports, which shows a statistical relevance. Conclusion: The dental services provided at sporting events are of consultative nature and not an integrated component of multidisciplinary sports medicine. However it is essential so that immediate availability of the dentist can allow athlete to return to competition and prevents secondary complications.
إصابات الأسنان في أوساط الأشخاص الرياضيين في وسط الهند.
الهدف من الدراسة: تقييم انتشار حوداث الاسنان في أوساط الرياضيين وغير الرياضيين في وسط الهند وتتضمن الاشخاص ذوي الصلة بالرياضة وغير الرياضيين.
المواد والطريقة : هذه دراسة مقطعية تم إجراؤها لكل الرياضيين المحترفين لتقييم اصابات حوادث الاسنان في مدينة بوبال، وتم إجراء الكشف الطبي باستخدام تصنيف أليس ودويس لإصابات الحوادث و تصنيف أنجل لعدم انطباق الفك.
النتائج: فى 230 شخصا وجد أن (16.8%) 54 من المستهدفين لديهم إصابات في الأسنان الأمامية، وأن غالبية اللاعبين (9% ) 15 لديهم 6-4 من إصابات الاسنان مقارنة بالاشخاص الذين لا علاقة لهم بالرياضة (%2.5) 4. وتتشابه جميع قطاعات اللاعبين في زيادة عدد إصابات الاسنان مقارنة مع قطاعات غير الرياضيين احصائياً.
الخلاصة: أن خدمات الاسنان المقدمة خلال الاحداث الرياضية هي ذات طبيعة استشارية وليست عنصرا أساسيا في الطب الرياضي وعلى الرغم من أهميتها. لذلك فأن توفر طبيب أسنان في الحال يظل امرا هاما مما يسمح للرياضي بالعودة إلى المنافسة كما يقلل من المضاعفات الثانوية
Keywords: Dentistry, malocclusion, sports, traumatic injuries
|How to cite this article:|
Tiwari V, Saxena V, Tiwari U, Singh A, Jain M, Singh A. Dental traumatic injuries among sports personnel of central India. Saudi J Sports Med 2015;15:210-3
|How to cite this URL:|
Tiwari V, Saxena V, Tiwari U, Singh A, Jain M, Singh A. Dental traumatic injuries among sports personnel of central India. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Jul 19];15:210-3. Available from: http://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2015/15/3/210/164271
| Introduction|| |
Sports dentistry originated in 1980s with the focus on prevention and treatment of oro-facial athletic injuries and related oral diseases.  The incidence of dental trauma due to contact sports has increased significantly in recent decades, mostly affecting the anterior teeth of teenagers. Many surveys reported that at least once every sportsman has experienced dental injury during participation at some point in their lifetime. 
The thousands of hours that sportsmen spend in practice sessions and actual competitions offer numerous possibilities for trauma to the oro-facial region through contact or collision with sports equipment (bats, balls and sticks), with body parts of the other participants and with the playing surfaces.  A major means used for the prevention of intraoral trauma in sports is the athletic mouth guards, but some disadvantages are considered because of the lack of knowledge regarding mouth guards. Therefore, there is a growing endorsement for the use of mouth guard and presenting the dental professional with a majority to improve the oral health of athletes. 
However, very few data were available regarding traumatic injuries among sports personnel of Indian population therefore this study has been undertaken to review and assess the prevalence of traumatic teeth injury among sports personnel of central India including contact and noncontact sports.
| Methodology|| |
A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the traumatic tooth injury among sportspersons in Bhopal city. All active professional sports players from Madhya Pradesh representing India at national and international level comprised the study population.
A preliminary test was conducted on 25 contact sports, and 25 noncontact sports personnel's in the month of February, 2014. The study was done to assess the validity and accuracy of the predesigned proforma and the reliability of the examiner and to know the practical and communication difficulties while examining oral cavity of this group of subjects.
Sportsperson who had given their consent to participate in the study, trained for the purpose of participation in different competitions and present during the study period.
Sportsperson who did not give the consent to participate in the study.
List of sports personnel enrolled in the stadium was provided by Department of Sports and Youth Welfare (DSYW). Out of all the 345 sports players, 320 participated in the study. Study subject included sports personnel aged between 12 and 22 years; residing in both residential and nonresidential sports complexes.
The permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Director of Sports, DSYW, Bhopal. Prior consent was obtained from the study subjects for the participation in the study. Ethical clearance for the study was obtained from the Ethics Committee, People's College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal.
Information on demographic characteristics of participants along with clinical examination was done using Ellis and Dewis Classification of Traumatic Injuries and Angle's Classification of Malocclusion the dental team comprised of examiner assisted by a recording personnel.
Examiner has performed immediate care and referral if needed in case of pain, infection or serious illness. The DSYW was assured that the results of the ongoing study will be reported to them as soon as possible for the further improvement of the oral health status of sports personnel's.
| Result|| |
The subjects available in the study were between the age group of 12-17 years and 18-22 years. Among 320 sports personnel, maximum number of subjects 176 (53.7%) were in the age group of 12-17 years, while 144 (45%) were in age group 18-22 years. According to the gender, 320 sports personnel 213 (68.4%) were males and 107 (35%) were females. There was no significant difference found between the age groups and gender, that is, P > 0.05 [Graph 1].
Shows distribution of subjects according to contact and noncontact sportspersons. The available subjects are 166 (51.8%) from contact sports and 154 (48.1%) from noncontact sports out of total 320 sports players. Of 320 sportspersons, 54 (16.8%) subjects had anterior tooth injuries [Table 1]. Among 12-17 years age group 25 (14.5%) subjects had traumatic tooth injuries as compare to 18-22 years 29 (19.5%). Overall tooth injuries were more prevalent among contact sports 31 (18.6%) as compare to noncontact sports 23 (15%) which is statistically significant. It also reveals injuries were more prevalent among male 38 (17.3%) in comparison female 16 (15.8%) subjects. There was no statistically significant difference among age groups and gender [Table 2].
|Table 2: Distribution of traumatic teeth according to age groups, type of sports played and gender|
Click here to view
[Table 3] shows the distribution among majority of contact sports personnel 15 (9%) had 4-6 number of traumatic teeth injury as compare to noncontact sports 4 (2.5%). Similarly in all the other segments contact sports personnel have more number of teeth injured as compare to noncontact sports which shows a statistical relevance.
|Table 3: Association between number of traumatic teeth involved in type of sports personnel|
Click here to view
Total 290 (90%) sports players had Angle's Class I malocclusion out of which 28 (8.7%) had one traumatic tooth, 10 (3.1%) has two traumatic tooth and 5 (1.5%) had three traumatic tooth. Whereas 23 (7.1%) had Angle's Class II division I malocclusion in which 23 (7.1%) had one traumatic tooth 7 (2.1%) which show a significant difference, that is, P < 0.001 [Table 4].
| Discussion|| |
The present study appraised the oral health status and treatment needs of sportspersons of Bhopal city. A total of 320 subjects were examined; including 166 participants from contact sports and 154 noncontact sports participants. The age assortment was between 12 and 22 years, being equally alienated among 12-17 years and 18-22 years.
The results of our study are antonymous with the earlier studies conducted in Brazil, Israel and Birmingham, where the prevalence of oro-facial injuries being 28.8%, 27% and 12%, respectively. The attributable reason could be due to limited utilization of mouthguards. ,,
Tremendous pressure for aggressive participation during teenage years leads to more teeth fracture during sports activity. An Arizonal study showed higher number of dental trauma among wrestlers due to the aggressiveness between teams.  This is an agreement with the present study as it shows 18.6% of traumatic tooth injuries among contact sports personnel's.
As the age increases the exposure of players toward tooth trauma also increases because they foster an attitude of invulnerability.  This statement agrees with our study since similar results were revealed.
Altogether traumatic tooth occurrence constituted about 16.8% among study subjects. This finding being different from the Birmingham study where occurrence of dental trauma was much lower; reason verbalized being proper knowledge of mouth guards awareness and its comprehension. 
The growing involvement of women and girls in competitive sports has increased. Rules and regulation governing their protection have not kept pace with increased participation. The present study shows 15.8% females and 17.3% males were affected with tooth injury; differences being nonsignificant. Reports indicate that men and boys, sustain 2-3 times more injuries as often as women and girls. 
| Conclusion|| |
The dental services provided at sporting events are of the consultative nature and not an integrated component of multidisciplinary sports medicine. However, it is essential so that immediate availability of the dentist can allow the athlete to return to competition and prevents secondary complications.
- With the support of dentists and public health professionals, the risks of oro-facial injuries should be made known to sportsmen, parents, coaches and school and college officials. Coaches and teachers should be encouraged to insist on players wearing mouthguards during training, as well as matches
- The sports governing bodies and major games organizing committees in association with dental hospitals and colleges should be encouraged to take a more active role in promoting programs for the prevention of oral injuries, oral disease and implementation of mandatory mouthguard rules.
| Acknowledgments|| |
For the support by chairman and staff of sports authority of India.
| References|| |
Ranalli DN. Sports dentistry and dental traumatology. Dent Traumatol 2002;18:231-6.
Cohenca N, Roges RA, Roges R. The incidence and severity of dental trauma in intercollegiate athletes. J Am Dent Assoc 2007;138:1121-6.
Dental care in sports. Newsletter in Dent Traumatol 2003:18; 117.
Johnsen DC, Winters JE. Prevention of intraoral trauma in sports. Dent Clin North Am 1991;35:657-66.
Ferrari CH, Ferreria de Mederios JM. Dental trauma and level of information: Mouthguard use in different contact sports. Dent Traumatol 2002;18:144-7.
Levin L, Friedlander LD, Geiger SB. Dental and oral trauma and mouthguard use during sport activities in Israel. Dent Traumatol 2003;19:237-42.
Garon MW, Merkle A, Wright JT. Mouth protectors and oral trauma: A study of adolescent football players. J Am Dent Assoc 1986;112:663-5.
Keçeci AD, Eroglu E, Baydar ML. Dental trauma incidence and mouthguard use in elite athletes in Turkey. Dent Traumatol 2005;21:76-9.
Onyeaso CO, Adegbesan OA. Oro-facial injury and mouthguard usage by athletes in Nigeria. Int Dent J 2003;53:231-6.
Gutmann JL, Gutmann MS. Cause, incidence, and prevention of trauma to teeth. Dent Clin North Am 1995;39:1-13.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]