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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 276-280

Gender difference in relation to emotional intelligence and conflict among Elite boxing players


1 Sports Sciences Faculty, Army Sports Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India

Date of Web Publication2-Sep-2015

Correspondence Address:
Karanbir Singh
Consultant Sports Psychologist, Sports Sciences Faculty, Army Sports Institute, Pune, Maharashtra
India
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-6308.164315

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  Abstract 

Objective: The present study is an attempt to investigate the gender difference in relation to emotional intelligence and conflict among boxing players and extending researches that found a strong relationship between these two constructs. Methods: The total 50 Elite boxers participated in the study, out of which 25 are Elite male boxers and 25 Elite female boxers of age 18 and above. Who completed the Emotional Intelligence Test by Anjum and Roqiya and Thomas Killman Conflict Mode Instrument by Kilmann and Thomas. Results: Comparison of means reveals significant gender difference on emotional intelligence, male boxing players have significantly scored higher on emotional intelligence than female boxers. The pattern of handling interpersonal conflict also differ significantly for male and female boxers. Male boxers emphasis more on competing, collaborating and avoiding, whereas female boxers use accommodating and compromising as a mode of handling interpersonal conflict. The correlation analysis reveals insignificant relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict mode for males, however significant but negative relation found between emotional intelligence and avoiding for female boxers, which implies that female boxers who are high in emotional intelligence are less in avoidance.

  Abstract in Arabic 

الفرق بين الجنسين من لاعبي الملاكمة النخبة فيما يتعلق الذكاء العاطفي
هدفت هذه الدراسة الى تحديد الفرق بين الجنسين من لاعبي الملاكمة فيما يتعلق بالذكاء العاطفي والصراع الداخلى وهناك دزاسات ايدت علاقة قوية بين هذين العاملين. شارك اجمالى 50 من الملاكمين النخبة في الدراسة ، منهم 25 من الملاكمين الذكور و25 من الإناث الملاكمين النخبة ايضا اعمارهم من 18 سنة فأكثر والذين أكملوا اختبار الذكاء العاطفى ل: Anjum and Roqiya بالضافة الى اختبار الصراع الداخلى ل: Thomas Killman واوضحت النتائج ان الفرق كبير بين الجنسين في الذكاء العاطفي اذ ان لاعبين الملاكمة الذكور قد سجلوا درجات أعلى بكثير فى الذكاء العاطفي على الملاكمين الإناث . كما وجد اختلافا كبيرا فى التعامل مع الصراع الداخلى بين الأفراد الذكور والإناث. وقد أظهر الملاكمين الذكور تركيزا أكثر على المنافسة ، والتعاون ، والتجنب ، في حين الملاكمين الإناث يستخدمن الاستيعاب والتقبل كوسيلة فى التعامل مع الصراع الداخلى. ولم تك هناك علاقة مباشرة ذات اهمية بين الذكاء العاطفي والصراع الداخلى لدى الذكور ولكن وجدت علاقة كبيرة ولكنها سلبية بين الذكاء العاطفي والتجنب لدى الإناث مما يعني أن الملاكمات الاناث ولارتفاع ذكائهم العاطفي هن أقل اظهارا للتجنب.

Keywords: Boxing, conflict, emotional intelligence


How to cite this article:
Singh K, Kapur S. Gender difference in relation to emotional intelligence and conflict among Elite boxing players. Saudi J Sports Med 2015;15:276-80

How to cite this URL:
Singh K, Kapur S. Gender difference in relation to emotional intelligence and conflict among Elite boxing players. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 May 21];15:276-80. Available from: http://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2015/15/3/276/164315


  Introduction Top


Over time, scientists have begun to realize that there is another type of intelligence that isn't related to the standard cognitive intelligence - it's called emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationship with others. Emotional intelligence define abilities distinct from, but complementary to, academic intelligence or the purely cognitive capacities measured by IQ. [1] The IQ contributes only 20% to success process of life. The rest are the results of our emotional intelligence. IQ and emotional intelligence are not opposite to each other, but they work separately. It is possible to be with a brilliant mind, but emotionally inept and it may cause many life problems. Yale psychologist Peter Salovey cites five major areas of emotional intelligence: (1) Self-awareness - knowing one's emotions, (2) Managing emotions - handling feelings so they are appropriate, (3) Motivation - marshaling emotions in service of a goal, (4) Recognizing emotions in others - empathy, which is the fundamental people skills, (5) Handling relationships - skill in managing emotions in others. [2]

Conflict can also be viewed as a constructive mutually beneficial win-win opportunity. [3] Conflict can facilitate understanding and tolerance of difference as both people grow through the process of expressing perspectives and feelings and demonstrate a willingness to respond to the other's unique ways of engaging in the relationship. [4] Conflict can also facilitate learning and increase effectiveness. [5] This relational model of conflict termed power with, involves the heart and mind , one's success is not achieved at the expense of others and the goal is preserving the relationship. [6]

Styles of conflict mode

Competing is more assertiveness and uncooperative kind of style, where an individual pursues his own concerns at the cost of others.

Accommodating is an unassertive and cooperative. While accommodating, individual neglects his own concerns to satisfy the concerns of other person, it's a kind of self-sacrifice where ones obeying another person's order when one would prefer not to, or producing to another's point of view.

Avoiding is unassertive and uncooperative, the individual does not immediately pursue his own concerns or those of the other person. He does avoid the conflict. There is a bit of diplomacy to sidestep the conflict, delaying an issue until a better time or simply withdrawing from a threatening situation.

Collaborating is both assertive and cooperative. Collaborating means to work with the other person to find some solution which fully satisfies the concerns of both persons. It means investigating into an issue to identify the underlying concerns of the two individuals and to find an alternative which meets concerns.

Compromising is intermediate in both assertiveness and cooperativeness. The purpose is to find some solution, to be mutually acceptable at a solution, which partially satisfies both parties. It falls on a mid-way between competing and accommodating. Compromising let go more than competing but less than accommodating.


  Materials and Methods Top


Participant

A total sample of 50 Elite Indian boxers (25 male and 25 female) participated. The sample was of age between 18 and 24. Subjects were taken from different Indian boxing academies, universities and colleges situated in the state of Punjab. To see the gender difference for emotional intelligence and conflict mode. All boxers represented at least once at the state level, national level or international level.

Instruments

Emotional Intelligence Test by Anjum and Roqiya (2010) [7] which measures the five dimensions self-awareness self-regulation, social skill, motivation, and empathy.

Thomas Killman Conflict Mode Instrument by Kilmann and Thomas (2012). [8] This test is based on a five-category scheme for classifying interpersonal conflict-handling modes: Competing, compromising, collaborating, avoiding, and accommodating. The test was given to measure the conflict mode of the same subjects.

Procedure

All participants seated comfortably. After explaining the purpose of the study to the subjects, their informed consent was taken in the form, and confidentiality was maintained as per ethical code. The tests administered in two phases. In the first phase, the subjects given printed questionnaire of Emotional Intelligence Test by Anjum and Roqiya [7] which measures the five dimensions self-awareness self-regulation, social skill, motivation, and empathy. Moreover, asked to give answers to all the questions, time will not be a barrier. After the gap of 1 h, the second phase started in which Thomas Killman Conflict Mode Instrument by Kilmann and Thomas (2012) [8] administered. This test is based on a five-category scheme for classifying interpersonal conflict-handling modes: Competing, compromising, collaborating, avoiding, and accommodating. The test was given to measure the conflict mode of the same subjects. Scoring was done as per the scoring keys given in the scoring manual. After the collection of data, interpretation of data conducted statistically for the results and discussions.


  Results and Analysis Top


[Table 1] represents the mean difference between male and female, for conflict mode and emotional intelligence. The mean for emotional intelligence is significantly higher toward male side than female, which mean males are more emotionally intelligent than females. Mean for conflict mode sub-scaled into five styles of conflict management. In the above mean table, the hierarchy for conflict style in a conflict situation is similar for both male and female. The mean value for competing is slightly higher in males than females, which means males are slightly high in competing in conflict situation than female. In collaboration, mean is higher for males than females that show males are high on collaborating than females. Mean for compromising is slightly higher in females than males that mean females are high in compromising than males. Mean for accommodating is much higher in females than males, that means females are more accommodating and mean for avoiding is slightly higher in males, that mean males are slightly high in avoiding than females.
Table 1: Comparison of mean, SD and t-value

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[Table 2] represents the correlation of emotional intelligence with various conflict mode for males, and according to this table the competing is significantly negatively related with compromising at 0.01 level of significance and with avoiding at 0.05 level of significance it shows males who are high in competing are less compromising and avoiding. Collaborating is significantly negatively related to avoiding at 0.05 level of significance it shows males who are high on collaboration are less in avoidance. Collaboration is significantly negatively related to accommodation at 0.05 level of significance, which reveals means males who are high on to collaboration are less in accommodation.
Table 2: Correlation table of emotional intelligence and conflict mode gender=male

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[Table 3] represents the correlation of emotional intelligence with various conflict mode styles for females, and according to this table the competing is significantly negatively related with the compromising at 0.05 level of significance, it shows females who are high in competing are less compromising or vice-versa. Collaboration is significantly negatively related with avoiding at 0.01 level of significance, means females who are high in collaboration are less in avoidance or vice-versa. Results reveals the relation between emotional intelligence and avoidance, which is significantly negatively correlated at 0.05 level of significance, which means females who are high in emotional intelligence are less in avoidance.
Table 3: Correlation table of emotional intelligence and conflict mode gender=female

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[Table 4] represents the correlation of emotional intelligence with various conflict mode styles for total sample, and according to this table the competing is significantly negatively related with compromising and avoidance at 0.01 level of significance and 0.05 level of significance, respectively. It means boxers who are high in competing are less in compromising and avoidance or vice-versa. Collaboration is significantly negatively related to avoidance and accommodation at 0.01 level of significance and 0.05 level of significance respectively. It means boxers who are high in collaboration are less in avoidance and accommodation or vice-versa. Compromising is significantly negatively related to accommodation at 0.05 level of significance. It means boxers who are high in compromising are less in accommodation or vice-versa. Results reveal emotional intelligence is significantly negatively related to avoidance at 0.05 level of significance, means boxers who are high in emotional intelligence are less in avoidance. It means boxers try to win and compete in conflict, rather than avoiding the situation, which means they are emotionally high and stable.
Table 4: Correlation table of emotional intelligence and conflict mode total sample

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  Discussion Top


The purpose of this study was to find out gender difference in relation to emotional intelligence and conflict mode among boxing players and comparison of emotional intelligence and conflict mode. As it was hypothesized that players who would be emotionally intelligent faceless conflict and get well-adjusted in emotional situations and, males would be more successful in conflict resolution than females due to high in degree of emotional intelligence. Results of the present study indicate that males are more emotionally intelligent than females. The hypothesis is accepted at 0.05 level of significance with t-value - 2.308*. It shows that males predominantly less affected by conflict situation and get well adjusted. Conflict hierarchy is similar in both gender and both males and females are less in avoidance. The results of present study is supported by Jordan and Troth [9] the study explores the connection between emotional intelligence and preferred styles of conflict resolution and examines the implications for human resource development and micro level organizational change specifically. Totally 139 respondents were administered the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile, to measure the emotional intelligence of group members working in teams, with Thomas Kilmann Conflict Model Instrument. [8] The results showed that individuals with high emotional intelligence preferred to seek collaborative solutions when face conflict.

Results of correlation of the total sample showed that males and females who are high in avoidance are less in emotional intelligence. Also, boxers who are high in competing are less in compromising and avoidance. Results also revealed that boxers who are high in collaboration are less in avoidance and accommodation. Collaborating is both assertive and cooperative. Results also showed that some of the boxers are high in compromising are less in accommodation. The results of correlation of emotional intelligence with various conflict mode for males, shows males who are high in competing are less compromising, males who are high in competing are less in avoiding, males who are high on collaboration are less in avoidance and males who are high on to collaboration are less in accommodation. On the others side with significant gender difference the results of correlation of emotional intelligence with various conflict mode for females shows females who are high in competing are less compromising, females who are high in collaboration are less in avoidance and females who are high in emotional intelligence are less in avoidance.


  Conclusion Top


Results of the present study indicates that males are high emotionally intelligent than female, and conflict hierarchy is similar in both gender. It shows that males predominantly less affected by conflict situation and get well adjusted, also the hierarchical pattern show that both male and female first go for accommodation, than competing, avoiding, collaborating, and compromising respectively, in conflict situation. The results shows significant negative correlation between emotional intelligence and conflict mode in the present study and in gender difference females who are high in emotional intelligence are less in avoidance behavior in conflict situation.


  Implementation Top


This research will explore the factor that effect emotional intelligence and conflict. It will also that how emotional intelligence and conflict styles are related to each other in case of boxers with their gender difference. In future, it will help other researchers to research with other variables along with conflict styles.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Goleman D. Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam; 1998. p. 4-13.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Mayer J, Salovey P. Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators. New York: Basic Books; 1997. p. 3-31.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Covey SR. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring The Character Ethic, Simon and Shuster. New York: Free Press; 1998.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Heitler S. Combined individual/marital therapy: A conflict resolution framework and ethical consideration. J Psychother Integr 2001;11:349-83.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Rahim MA, Psenicka C, Polychroniou P, Zhao JH, Yu CS, Chan KA, et al. A model of emotional intelligence and conflict management strategies: A study in seven countries. Int J Organ Anal 2002;10:302-26.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Jordan JV. The Healing Connection. Bostan: Beacon Press; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Anjum A, Roqiya Z. Emotional Intelligence Test. Agra, India: National Psychological Corporation; 2010. p. 1-15.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kilmann RH, Thomas KW. Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. Mountain View, CA: Xicom, A Subsidiary of CPP, Inc.; 1977. p. 1-15.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Jordan PJ, Troth AC. Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution: Implication for human resources development. Adv Dev Hum 2002;4:62-79.  Back to cited text no. 9
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results and Analysis
Discussion
Conclusion
Implementation
References
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