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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 79-81

Effective time for consumption of preexercise energy drink to enhance cardiorespiratory fitness


Department of Physiotherapy, Saaii College of Medical Science and Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication6-Jun-2017

Correspondence Address:
Neeraj Kumar
Asst. Prof. Cum Academic Coordinator, Department of Physiotherapy, Saaii College of Medical Science and Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
India
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-6308.207575

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  Abstract 

Objective: The purpose of the present research work was to determine the appropriate timing of ingestion of energy drink prior to exercise to improve VO2 max.
Methodology: A total of 15 male healthy individual, whose mean age and height were 20.47 years (±2.00) and 130.83 cm (±17.26) respectively, participated in this study and were placed in three different groups, in Group A they performed Bruce treadmill test without taking any supplement, in Group B they consumed energy drink 20 minutes before performing test and in Group C they consumed same energy drink immediately before performing the test.
Results and Analysis: One way ANOVA were applied to analyze the data between all groups and statistical significant differences were found in VO2 max between Group A, Group B and Group C.
Conclusion: The finding of this study concluded that ingestion of energy drink before exercise helps in enhancing the VO2 max, but its timing of ingestion does not affect as much since both group B and group C showed relatively similar findings.

Keywords: Bruce treadmill protocol, cardiorespiratory fitness, energy drink, VO2 max


How to cite this article:
Kumar N, Srivastava D, Tiwari NN, Dwivedi S. Effective time for consumption of preexercise energy drink to enhance cardiorespiratory fitness. Saudi J Sports Med 2017;17:79-81

How to cite this URL:
Kumar N, Srivastava D, Tiwari NN, Dwivedi S. Effective time for consumption of preexercise energy drink to enhance cardiorespiratory fitness. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Aug 20];17:79-81. Available from: http://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2017/17/2/79/207575


  Introduction Top


The VO2 max is considered as one of the most important determinants of athletes' fitness.[1] VO2 max or cardiorespiratory fitness is the ability to perform moderate to high-intensity exercises for prolonged periods.[2],[3] VO2 max can be measured by direct or indirect measurements.[4] In which, Bruce treadmill testing is one which is much reliable and valid.[2]

It is believed that preexercise ingestion of energy drink improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Consumption of energy drink in sports is now very common.[5] It is being widely used to enhance athletic performance.[6] The most widely used energy drink worldwide is Red Bull,[7],[8] and many research have also been done on Red Bull energy drink and its effect on VO2 max.[9],[10],[11] There are numerous studies who found that preexercise consumption of energy drink improves VO2 max during exercise,[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14] but there is a paucity of work related to the finding of the exact timing of ingestion of energy drink before exercise to improve VO2 max at its best. Therefore, the purpose of present research work is to find the appropriate timing, whether 20 min prior or just immediate before the exercise, of consumption of preexercise energy drink to enhance VO2 max, and this study will help the Athletes, Coaches, Physiotherapist, Team Physician, Team Managers, and dieticians to get acquainted with the use of energy drink for improvement of VO2 max.


  Materials and Methods Top


Subject sample

Totally 15 volunteer male, moderately active healthy controls, devoid of any drug abuse, nongym user, and nonathletes aged between 18 and 25 years randomly selected in this study. The all same 15 controls were placed in three different groups. Group A consists of measurement of VO2 max without any prior supplement. Group B consists of measurement of VO2 max with consumption of Red Bull energy drink 20 min before the test, and Group C consists of measurement of VO2 max with consumption of Red Bull energy drink just immediate before starting the test.

Measures and procedures

The test for measuring VO2 max was divided into three testing sessions with an interval of minimum 1 week for each group, respectively. The measurement of VO2 max had been done on motor driven Treadmill using “Bruce protocol.” Subjects were asked to report 30 min before each testing session. The sequence of all three testing session was randomized with five subjects consumed nothing; another five subjects consumed an energy drink 20 min prior whereas another five subjects consumed energy drink just immediate before the test, on the first testing session.

Statistical analysis

Mean and standard deviation were used to prepare summary statistics. ANOVA (F) and Post hoc with Scheffe test were used to determine the differences between all the groups. The statistical analysis was done on SPSS version 16.00 (IBM, New York, USA).


  Results Top


A total of 15 male healthy individuals participated in the present study with the mean age of 20.47 years (±02.00), and their mean weight were 130.83 lbs (±17.26).

The subjects were placed in three different groups, and their VO2 max was measured by treadmill using Bruce protocol.

Among Group A, Group B, and Group C the VO2 max (ml/kg/min) were 53.38 (±4.24), 60.80 (±3.15), and 59.24 (±3.58), respectively and heart rate (beat/min) were 152.13 (±10.32), 131.47 (±15.48), and 137.07 (±14.54) as shown by its mean plot in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Mean Plot of Heart Rate (a) and VO2 Max (b) among all Three Groups

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One-way ANOVA was applied between heart rate and VO2 max among all the three groups and Post hoc multiple Scheffe range test were applied to determine the intergroup differences which is shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Comparison of heart rate and VO2 max between all three groups

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  Discussion Top


The purpose of the present research work was to find the appropriate timing of consumption of preexercise energy drink to enhance the cardiorespiratory fitness. Fifteen participants were participated in three testing session and placed in three different groups as, Group A (control group), Group B (ingestion of energy drink 20 min before test), and Group C (ingestion of energy drink just immediate before the test). The cardiorespiratory fitness or VO2 max was determined by treadmill using Bruce protocol.

The statistically significant difference found in Heart Rate (F = 9.22) and VO2 max (F = 16.92) between Group A, Group B, and Group C.

The Post hoc Scheffe test revealed statistical significant difference between Group A and Group B among heart rate (mean difference = 20.66, P< 0.001) and VO2 max (mean difference = 7.42, P< 0.001). This finding suggests that consumption of energy drink 20 min before starting the exercise helps in enhancing the VO2 max during exercise, which is in relation to the finding of Kazemi et al.,[15] Ivy et al.,[10] and Rahnama et al. (2010)[16] who stated that energy drink has ergogenic effects on endurance performance as it enhances the VO2 max during exercises.

We have found similar kind of trend between Group A and Group C in regards to heart rate (mean difference = 15.06, P< 0.05) and VO2 max (mean difference = 5.86, P< 0.001), and it reveals that consumption of energy drink immediately before the exercise also increases the VO2 max during that exercise of the individual. This finding is consistent with the findings of Walsh et al.[6] who stated that the energy drink supplement can significantly increase time to exhaustion during a moderate intensity run.

Statistical insignificant difference were found between Group B and Group C among heart rate (mean difference = −5.6, P = 0.536) and VO2 max (mean difference = 1.55, P = 0.518). According to this finding, it can be suggested that the VO2 max of an individual can be increased during an exercise with the help of consumption of preexercise energy drink irrespective of its timing of consumption. Since the average VO2 max value of Group B is more than Group C so, it can be suggested that ingestion of the energy drink 20 min before the exercise can give better VO2 max.


  Conclusion Top


The finding of the present study reveals that preexercise ingestion of energy drink helps in increasing VO2 max during exercise. Energy drink can be administered anytime between 20 min to immediately before the exercise as its effect is relatively similar on VO2 max.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Thompson WR, Gordon NF, Pescatello LS. ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 8th ed. USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2009. p. 72-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Katch VL, McArdle WD, Katch FI. Essentials of Exercise Physiology. 4th ed. USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Levine BD. VO2 max: What do we know, and what do we still need to know? J Physiol 2008;586:25-34.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Kumar N, Agrahari R. Effect of pre-exercise sports drink on cardio-respiratory fitness. Med Sportiva 2012;VIII:1846-51.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sillivent J, Blevins J, Peak K. Energy drinks: Ergolytic or ergogenic? Int J Exerc Sci 2012;5:214-22.  Back to cited text no. 5
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6.
Walsh AL, Gonzalez AM, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Hoffman JR. Improved time to exhaustion following ingestion of the energy drink Amino Impact. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010;7:14.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.
Laquale KM. Red Bull: The Other Energy Drink and Its Effect on Performance. In Movements Arts, Health Promotion and Leisure Studies Faculty Publications. Paper 26; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Malinauskas BM, Aeby VG, Overton RF, Aeby TC, Heidal KB. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students. Nutr J 2007;6:35.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Candow DG, Kleisinger AK, Grenier S, Dorsch KD. Effect of sugar-free red bull energy drink on high-intensity run time-to-exhaustion in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 2009;23:1271-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.
Ivy JL, Kammer L, Ding Z, Wang B, Bernard JR, Liao YH, et al. Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2009;19:61-78.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.
Nienhueser J, Brown GA, Shaw BS, Shaw I. Effect of energy drinks on metabolism and during submaximal treadmill exercise in college age males. Int J Exerc Sci 2011;4:65-76.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Byars A, Greenwood M, Greenwood L, Simpson WK. The effectiveness of a pre-exercise performance drink (PRX) on indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2006;3:56-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
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13.
Sheehan KM, Hartzler LK. Effect of XS energy drink on aerobic exercise capacity of athletes. Int J Exerc Sci 2011;4:152-63.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Stojanovic MD, Stojanovic MV, Kanostrevac K, Veljovic D, Medjedovic B, Ostojic SM. The effects of pre-exercise high energy drink on exercise performance in physically active men and women. Adv Phys Educ 2011;1:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Kazemi F, Gaeini AA, Kordi MR, Rahnama N. The acute effects of two energy drinks on endurance performance in female athlete students. Sport Sci Health 2009;5:55-60.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Rahnama N, Gaeini AA, Kazemi F. The effectiveness of two energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes. J Res Med Sci 2010;15:127-32.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
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