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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 158-161

Effect of combined resistance and plyometric training program on explosive strength in indian taekwondo players


Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India

Date of Web Publication4-Oct-2017

Correspondence Address:
Avinash Kumar Boyat
Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab
India
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-6308.215922

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Sport Taekwondo was developed in the 1950s and may have a somewhat different focus, especially in terms of its emphasis on speed and competition (as in Olympic sparring). Explosive strength is a combination of strength and speed. It can be defined as the ability to overcome a resistance with high speed. In Taekwondo and many other games, the ability to generate maximum strength in shortest time period has been considered as essential to obtain high sports performance level.
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of a combined training program (weight training and plyometrics) on explosive strength development in adolescents, Taekwondo players.
Methodology: Twenty Taekwondo national level players (experimental group, n = 10 and control group, n = 10) aged 18–21 years volunteered to take part in this study. The experimental group underwent resistance training program, followed by plyometrics training program 3 days in a week for 6 weeks. The participants were assessed before and after 6 weeks of training program for upper and lower extremities explosive strength.
Results: The results of the present study support the use of combined resistance and plyometric training program to improve the upper and lower body explosive strength level in Indian Taekwondo players.
Conclusion: The study shows the use of combined resistance and plyometric training program can improve the upper and lower body explosive strength level in Indian Taekwondo players

Keywords: Explosive strength, plyometric training, resistance training, Taekwondo


How to cite this article:
Boyat AK, Singh A, Sandhu JS. Effect of combined resistance and plyometric training program on explosive strength in indian taekwondo players. Saudi J Sports Med 2017;17:158-61

How to cite this URL:
Boyat AK, Singh A, Sandhu JS. Effect of combined resistance and plyometric training program on explosive strength in indian taekwondo players. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Jul 19];17:158-61. Available from: http://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2017/17/3/158/215922




  Introduction Top


Taekwondo is one of the martial arts and is so popular that it has been an official Olympic event from the 2000 Olympics in Sydney. The popularity of Taekwondo mainly comes from its dynamic kicks during sparring. There are many kinds of kicking techniques in Taekwondo, such as front kick, roundhouse kick, side kick, back kick, swing kick, hook kick, back spinning hook kick, and axe kick, depending on the plane of movement and joint action of lower extremities. Strength is the ability to exert force against a resistance. It naturally increases with age because of the body growth and development of neuromuscular system. It depends on age, sex, hormone, training, etc. Strength training is an essential element of fitness for virtually every sportsperson. Long gone are the days when coaches believed that resistance training exercises only added unnecessary bulk to the athletes and hindered their ability to execute skill. Explosive strength is the combination of strength and speed abilities. It can be defined as the ability to overcome resistance with high speed.

It is well established that strength and power are improved by a resistance training program in children and adolescents.[1] Research indicated that regular participation in a resistance training program or a plyometrics training improves measures of strength and power in adults.[2] The studies of Fleck and Kraemer [3] also suggest that changes in motor performance skill resulting from the performance of combined resistance training and plyometric training are greater than with either type of training alone. Plyometrics are training method used by athletes in all types of sport to increase strength and explosiveness. Plyometrics consists of a rapid stretching of a muscle (eccentric action) immediately followed by a concentric or shortening action of the same muscle and connective tissue. Recent research suggests that plyometrics training is also safe and effective for children and adolescents.[4] In Taekwondo and many other games and sport, the ability to generate maximum strength in shortest time period has been considered as essential to obtain high sport performance level. Docherty et al.[5] and Chu [2] in their research literature reported that combined training method is a method that combines resistance training and plyometric training, which has been proposed to increase muscular power. In the present study, researcher first involved the participants in resistance training program in the school gymnasium and then in plyometric exercises in the ground. This method enables the coach to easily supervise the resistance training and plyometrics training in a single workout on the same day. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to determine the effect of combined resistance and plyometric training program on explosive strength in Indian Taekwondo players.


  Methodology Top


The study was designed to assess the effects of a complex training program on the power development of Indian Taekwondo players. Twenty state level Taekwondo players aged 18–21 years were selected for the study. The participants belong to the Punjab Taekwondo Association, Punjab. The total players were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 10) and control group (n = 10). The experimental group performed resistance training followed by plyometrics exercises, 3 days/week for 6 weeks. Before each training session, all the participants performed 10 min of low to moderate exercise and stretching for warming up, and researcher discussed and demonstrated proper resistance training and plyometric exercises. Participants were assessed before and after a 6-week training program for upper and lower body explosive strength according to the two-hand medicine ball put (MBP) and vertical jump (VJ)[6] test. The field test most frequently used to measure power of the upper body is the seated MBP (Clemons, Campbell, and Jeansonne 2010). Both the tests were performed three times and the highest values were taken in meter for MBP and centimeter for VJ for statistical analysis.

The detail training protocols are described in [Table 1] and [Table 2].
Table 1: Resistance and plyometric training protocol for 1-3 weeks

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Table 2: Resistance and plyometric training protocol for 4-6 weeks

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The training program consisted of eight exercises, of which four were resistance training exercises and four were plyometric exercises. The resistance exercises were bench press, leg press, front press, and hamstring curl. The plyometric exercises were tuck jump, medicine ball (MB) overhead throw, hurdle jump, and MB seated throw. First 3 weeks, the resistance exercises started with 55% of 1RM. Each resistance exercises were performed 3 sets of 8 repetitions and each plyometric exercises were performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions with own body weight. After 3 weeks of training program, the resistance exercises were performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 60% of 1RM and plyometric exercises were performed 3 sets of 15 repetitions. There was a rest interval of 60 s in between the sets.


  Results Top


[Table 3] shows the results of VJ and MB explosive strength pre- and post-training protocol in control and experimental groups.
Table 3: The results of vertical jump and medicine ball explosive strength pre- and post-training protocol in control and experimental group

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  Discussion Top


A number of studies demonstrate the effectiveness of plyometrics compared to nonexercising control groups.[7],[8] Other studies demonstrate an enhancement of motor performance associated with plyometric training combined with weight training or the superiority of plyometrics, as compared to other methods of training.[9],[10] The evidence indicates that the combination weight training and plyometrics are effective. One way to combine the two forms of training is complex training or the contrast method. The main findings from our study were the significant increases in the height of the VJ and the distance of the MBP, which proved the efficacy of the combined training program of resistance training and plyometric training. The experimental groups improved in both the assessed variables from pre- to post-testing. The control group also improved in MBP but no improvement was found in VJ, but the improvement in control group was not statistically significant. Several factors may have contributed to the changes in VJ and MBP. These factors are body segments, increased coordination level, and muscular strength, and the issue in the specificity of training can influence the strength gains. When training and testing are performed using the same type of resistant equipment, a large increase in strength is normally demonstrated. If training and testing are performed on two different types of equipment, the increase in strength normally is substantially less and sometimes nonexistent.[3] This specificity of the response to resistance training is understandable because strength improvement is related to the adaptations that occur both in the muscle fiber itself and in the neural organization and excitability for a particular pattern of voluntary movement.

Bobbert and Van Soest, 1994[11] therefore suggested that in a training program aimed at improving jumping achievement, resistance training exercises should be accompanied by exercises, in which the athletes may practice with their changed neuromuscular system. Then, increases in maximal strength would necessarily be followed by explosive strength enhancement. In the same way, Adams et al.[9] have proposed that weight training combined with plyometrics is perhaps a greater stimulus to VJ performance than either weight or plyometric training alone; in this study, the training program was designed to improve muscular power levels, focusing on VJ and MBP. Researcher used a combined training method of resistance training and plyometric training which enabled coaches to supervise weight training and plyometric training in a single work out on the same days.[12] The values of VJ and MBP performance enhanced due to the combined training methods which stimulate the neuromuscular system. It activates the muscular fibers and the nervous system. Due to this, slow twitch muscle fibers behave like fast twitch fibers to some extent.[13] Furthermore, resistance training increases motor neuron excitability and reflex action, which may lead to better training conditions for subsequent plyometric exercises.[14] This fact may contribute to the improve observed in this study. On the other hand, with the beginning of puberty and throughout the maturation process, there is an increase in boys' muscular proportion from 27% to 40% of body mass with increases in muscular strength.[15] Kraemer and Fleck, 1993[16] reported that hormonal factors such as increase in circulating androgens and level of testosterone may help in this process.


  Conclusion Top


The researcher strongly believes that combined training program increases VJ and MBP performance. In other words, we can say that this type of training program improves the explosive strength level of upper and lower extremities. These strength level improvements are usually essential in Taekwondo. Correctly designed and supervised this type of training program carries no extra overload on adolescents and adults. This is an important part of conditioning that contributes to improved performance of young boys and elite players in various sport and games.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Faigenbaum AD, Westcott WL, Micheli LJ, Outerbridge AR, Long CJ, LaRosa-Loud R, et al. The effects of strength training and detraining on children. J Strength Con Res 1996;10:109-114.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Chu DA. Jumping into Plyometrics. 2nd ed. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics; 1998.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Fleck SJ, Kraemer WJ. Designing Resistance Training Program. 3rd ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Marginson V, Rowlands AV, Gleeson NP, Eston RG. Comparison of the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after an initial and repeated bout of plyometric exercise in men and boys. J Appl Physiol 2005;99:1174-81.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.
Docherty D, Robbins D, Hodgson M. Complex training revisited: A review of its current status as a viable training approach. Strength Cond J 2004;26:52-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Glencross DJ. The Measurement of Muscular Power. A Test of Leg Power and a Modification for General Use. Microcarded Doctoral Dissertation, University of Western Australia; 1960.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Blakey JB, Southard D. The combined effect of weight training and plyometrics on dynamic leg strength and leg power. J Appl Sports Sci Res 1987;1:14-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Diallo O, Dore E, Duche P, Van Praagh E. Effects of plyometric training followed by a reduced training programme on physical performance in prepubescent soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fit 2001;41:342-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Adams K, O'Shea JP, O'Shea KL, Climstein M. The effect of six weeks of squat, plyometric and squat-plyometric trianing on power production. J Appl Sports Sci Res 1992;6:36-41.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Clutch D, Wilton M, McGown C, Bryce GR. The effect of depth jumps and weight trainingon leg strength and vertical jump. Res Q 1983;54:5-10.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Bobbert MF, Van Soest AJ. Effects of muscle strengthening on vertical jump height: A simulation study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994;26:1012-20.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Ebben WP, Watts PB. A review of combined weight training and plyometric training modes: Complex training. Strength Cond 1998;20:18-27.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Chu DA. Explosive Power and Strength: Complex Training for Maximum Results. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics; 1996.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Ebben WP, Watts PB, Jensen RL, Blackard DO. EMG and kinetic analysis of complex training exercise variables. J Strength Cond Res 2000;14:451-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Israel S. Age-related changes in strength and special groups. In: Komi PV, editor. Strength and Power in Sport. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992. p. 319-27.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Kraemer WJ, Fleck SJ. Strength for Young Athletes. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics; 1993.  Back to cited text no. 16
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Methodology
Results
Discussion
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