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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-9

Relationship of rate of perceived exertion on lactate threshold and physiological variables with incremental running test


Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India

Date of Web Publication15-Feb-2018

Correspondence Address:
Sarika Chaudhary
Faculty of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab
India
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DOI: 10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_26_17

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  Abstract 


Aim: This study aims to analyze the relationship of rate of perceived exertion on lactate threshold and physiological variables with the incremental running test.
Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 males who are physically active and athletes (Group A and B; 25 each). The athletes were taken from running sports and physical active males from gymnasium with a mean age (20.8 ± 2.3), body weight (67.8 ± 6.7), height (176.6 ± 5.1), and body mass index (22.0 ± 2.6).
Results: Significant correlation was found.
Conclusion: The findings of the study will provide guidance to prepare training schedules on the basis of the physical fitness capacity of the individual.

  Abstract in Arabic 

لهدف: تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تحليل العلاقة بين معدل الجهد المدرك على عتبة اللاكتات والمتغيرات الفسيولوجية مع اختبار الجري التدريجي.
المواد والطرق: شملت الدراسة 50 ذكور نشطين بدنيا ورياضيين (المجموعة ألف وباء، و 25 لكل منهما). تم أخذ الرياضيين من الذكور النشطين البدنيين من صالة الألعاب الرياضية متوسط اعمارهم ​​(20.8 ± 2.3) ووزن الجسم (67.8 ± 6.7) والارتفاع (176.6 ± 5.1) ومؤشر كتلة الجسم (22.0 ± 2.6).
النتائج: وجدنا علاقة ارتباط معنوية تراوحت بين الجهد المدرك (ربي) ومعدل ضربات القلب (هر) في كل السكان بشكل عام والارتباط المعتدل بين ربي والموارد البشرية في الافراد الرياضيين. كما وجد ارتباطا معتدلا (r = 0.302) بين ربي ولاكتنات الدم (بلا) في كل من مجموعة السكان العامة والرياضيين، وبين ما قبل وبعد اكتات الدم (بلا) في المجموعة السكانية العامة. وتم العثور على ارتباط معنوي (0.000) بين لاكتات الدم قبل وبعد العملية (بلا) في المجموعة الرياضية.
الخلاصة: نتائج الدراسة ستقدم الإرشاد لإعداد جداول التدريب على أساس قدرة اللياقة البدنية للفرد.

Keywords: Incremental running test, lactate threshold, perceived exertion, physiological variables


How to cite this article:
Chaudhary S, Sharma M. Relationship of rate of perceived exertion on lactate threshold and physiological variables with incremental running test. Saudi J Sports Med 2018;18:5-9

How to cite this URL:
Chaudhary S, Sharma M. Relationship of rate of perceived exertion on lactate threshold and physiological variables with incremental running test. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Sep 22];18:5-9. Available from: http://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2018/18/1/5/225288




  Introduction Top


The general knowledge of exercise is a strong foundation for professional groups such as physical education teachers, coaches, and fitness experts concerned with human physical activity. It helps the professionals to acquire and disseminate knowledge pertaining to physical activity of a human being. Furthermore, it assists in scientifically constructing and implementing exercise/training programs for various categories of people, for those who are involved in competitive sports or those interested in acquiring optimal fitness. To accomplish high performance in competitive sports, it is essential that the trainers possess knowledge of exercise training. This assists them to yield fruitful result from their athletes. It also helps in designing and managing rehabilitative programs for those suffering from various health disorders. Moreover, the sedentary class of people can be motivated to lead a positive and healthier life style.[1]

Regular exercise is associated with a number of health benefits including maintaining the fitness, reduced risk of coronary heart disease and increased likelihood of maintaining desirable body weight. In this fitness, testing is commonly employed because it has an important role in sustaining and stimulating the commitment to the habit of exercise. Conventionally, the approach to the fitness testing has been in terms of absolute performance of the person. It involves the measuring of performance itself or majorly by the determinant of endurance performance.[2]

Objective information about the psychological and physiological processes occurring during physical activity is essential for modulating the intensity and volume of loading and for determining limits under extreme load. Because the importance of controlled physical activity to the general population has increased with the progress of so-called civilization diseases, it appears to be essential to evaluate the relationship between subjectively perceived exertion (PRE) and objective loading. Biomedical methods, such as heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (BLa) monitoring, have been used successfully during the training process of athletes for many years. These methods provide information about the metabolic processes involved during loading, thus facilitating the athletic training control.[3] The HR, blood lactate (BLa), rate of PRE appeared to be practical for monitoring training intensities during training sessions.


  Subjects and Methods Top


The study included 50 males who are physically active and athletes (Group A and B; 25 each). The athletes were taken from running sports and physical active males from gymnasium with mean age (20.8 ± 2.3), body weight (67.8 ± 6.7), height (176.6 ± 5.1), and body mass index (BMI) (22.0 ± 2.6). All participants were engaged in their specific and regular training. All volunteers provided a written, informed consent to participate in the study. The procedure, benefits, and potential risks of the study were explained to the subjects before test starts and duly signed informed consent form were taken. Consent form contains detailed information of demographic history and nature of the study. The parameters measured were height, weight, BMI, blood lactate (BLa), HR, pulse rate, blood pressure, rate of PRE, and O2 saturation. The tools for data collection were stadiometer, weighing machine, LA scout blood lactate (BLa) analyzer, lancing device and lancets for taking blood samples, polar HR monitor, palpatory method for pulse rate, sphygmomanometer (diamond), Borg rate of PRE scale, pulse oxymeter.


  Discussion Top


The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relationship of rate of PRE on blood lactate (BLa) concentration and physiological variables with the incremental running test in young males.

The results of the present study reveal a linear correlation between the RPE and HR in general population. The results of the present study are in agreement with the authors [3] they concluded a significant association between HR and the Borg scale of fatigue score in the nonathlete group but not in the athlete group. Several other studies also confirm this for similar percentages of the variance in the nonathletic group.[4],[5],[6],[7]

Many other studies showed that RPE in association with HR increased linearly during the incremental test for the general population and athletes.[8],[9],[10]

The result of the present study shows moderate correlation between the RPE and HR in athletic population, similar result was proved by Abe et al.,[11] found HR values corresponded to the RPE scores for race walkers during the incremental test, the RPE scores increased linearly as a function of HR for all groups (race walkers, distance runners, and untrained), results indicated that a combination of HR and RPE could be useful to predict the exercise intensity corresponding to the individual. Foster [12] in a similar study found that the session RPE method of quantitating the exercise training load was related to the HR. This further documents that simple extension of the use of the RPE concept provides a valid method of quantitating exercise training independent of technologically intensive methods of recording exercise training intensity.

In fact, Borg et al.[10] suggested that a combination of HR and blood lactate (BLa) could predict RPE more accurately than either variable alone when these variables were applied to moderately or highly fit males. The results of present study showed a moderate correlation between the RPE and blood lactate (BLa) in general population and athletic population group the similar results were found in Demello et al.[13] who found that fit and unfit subject's RPE values corresponds to the blood lactate (BLa). Similar results were observed by Faulkner and Eston [14] who found correlation between RPE and blood lactate (BLa) and defined RPE is inexpensive and easily performed. This makes it an interesting tool for LA threshold determination. Similar results was found in another study by Scherr et al.[15] who found LA threshold at about 13 (“somewhat hard”) on the RPE scale and found RPE was “strongly correlated” with HR and blood lactate (BLa). The results are inconsistent with the Steed et al.[16] they found no statically significant differences were observed for RPE and blood lactate (BLa) during the first 5–10 min of running. Seip et al.[17] no significant difference in RPE and blood lactate (BLa) in runners and nonrunners.

In the present study, there was a significant correlation (P = 0.001) was found between the pre- and post-run blood lactate (BLa) in general population group. Similarly, Goodwin et al.[18] expressed to progressive incremental exercise, blood lactate (BLa) will increase in an exponential manner once LA threshold has been exceeded in normal individuals. Although LA threshold was highly individualized. An individual's endurance performance is well correlated with his or her LA threshold, and endurance training improves LA threshold. While blood lactate (BLa) was significantly elevated following a progressive, incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Blood lactate (BLa) is an indicator of fatigue during performance. Lower blood lactate (BLa) level indicates the less fatigue level. Lower concentrations of blood lactate (BLa) have not necessarily been associated with improved subsequent performance in laboratory settings (Weltman et al., 1977, 1979). A significant correlation (P = 0.000) was found between the pre- and post-run blood lactate (BLa) in athletic group the result is same as Kantanista et al.[20] In the case of LA, the interactions between concentrations measured in the sprinters and triathletes was statistically significant. When a subject is working at a low-to-moderate intensity, LA diffuses into the blood and can be traced in the venous drainage from the muscle. As exercise proceeds, LA is maintained at a fairly constant concentration in the blood.[21]

In the present study, there was significant correlation (P < 31.05) is found between resting and postrun pulse rate in general population group (P = 0.012) and in athletic population group (P = 0.026). Similarly, linear correlation between prerunning or resting HR and postrunning HR in both general population and athletic group. The possible explanation for this observation is that the posttest HR had to be greater than the precondition, thus following a normal pattern of the cardiovascular system in regards to autonomic adjustment during sports practice.[22],[23] Long-term endurance training significantly affects autonomic control of the heart. Endurance training increases HR variability, increases parasympathetic activity and decreases sympathetic activity in the human heart at rest. These training-induced autonomic changes, coupled with a possible reduction in intrinsic HR, will decrease resting HR. Athletes have a lower resting HR and a more rapid recovery of HR following exercise, due to enhanced parasympathetic activity produced by long-term endurance training. Endurance trained individuals have a decreased submaximal exercise HR due to reduced sympathetic activity for a given submaximal work-rate.[24] In the present study, there was a significant correlation (P < 31.05) between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in both general population (P = 0.012) and athletes (P = 0.023). These results, are similar of Wielemborek-Musial et al.[25] who found during single-bout, multistage exercise test on a cycle ergometer, systolic blood pressure increased significantly with the workload both in clinically healthy males and females. Similarly, Caselli et al.[26] found at maximum exercise, the systolic BP substantially increases from the baseline values, whereas the diastolic BP shows only minimal changes. As expected, the physiologic response of cardiovascular system to exercise in athletes is characterized by an increase in HR and systolic BP in response to the increased sympathetic drive and associated to increased cardiac output.[27],[28],[29],[30] The reference of an exaggerated response in blood pressure sometimes indicates only the systolic BP as the figures of Manolio et al.[31] in men and women respectively, or also report the systolic BP and diastolic BP like those of Sharabi et al.{32} the 200/100 mmHg, respectively. In the present study, no correlation was found between HR and blood lactate (BLa), similarly, no correlation was found between the blood pressure and HR, between the HR and oxygen saturation also in both general and athletic population.

Exercise testing is a valued tool to assess cardiopulmonary function. It can define the limits of performance in an athlete or the functional capabilities of normal individual. The physiologic response to exercise is influenced by the state of health and fitness, age, gender, the type of exercise, exercise position, and the environment. A good understanding of the simple physiologic responses to acute exercise can assist the clinician in applying the information. The applications include the assessment, exercise prescription, and hemodynamic responses to exercise.

Based on the results of the present study, there was a relationship between HR and the RPE ratings in the nonathlete group than in the athlete group. Therefore, for nonathletes, the Borg RPE scale may be used as a tool for the collection of physical loading as evaluated by HR; however, this method is not applicable for athletes. For athletes, the most analytical parameter is the measurement of blood lactate (BLa) level.


  Results Top


A significant correlation (r = 0.428) was found between the RPE and HR in general population and moderate linear correlation (r = 0.0157) between the RPE and HR in athletic population. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.302) was found between RPE and blood lactate (BLa) in both general population and athletic group. There was a significant correlation (0.001) at the between the pre- and post-run blood lactate (BLa) in the general population group. Significant correlation (0.000) was found between the pre- and post-run blood lactate (BLa) in athletic group. There was significant correlation (r = 0.494) found between resting and postrun pulse rate in general population group and athletic population group (r = 0.444) correlation was significant. There was linear correlation between prerunning or resting HR and postrunning HR in both general population and athletic group. There was significant correlation between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in both general population (r = 0.492) and athletes (r = 0.452). In the present study, no correlation was found between HR and blood lactate (BLa), similarly, no correlation was found between the blood pressure and HR. No correlation was found between the HR and oxygen saturation in both general and athletic population.


  Conclusion Top


The results of the present study would be helpful to exercise psychologist, physiologist, physical educators, and coaches. The findings of the study will provide guidance to prepare training schedules on the basis of the physical fitness capacity of the individual. The findings of the study will add to the quantum of knowledge in the area of physiological and performance in sports.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
Discussion
Results
Conclusion
References

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