|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 113-118
Effect of core muscle strengthening on roller skating speed in competitive teenage skaters: An experimental study
Nabeel Ahammed, Basavaraj Motimath, Dhaval Chivate
Department of Sports Physiotherapy, KLEU Institute of Physiotherapy, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||6-Nov-2019|
Department of Sports Physiotherapy, KLEU Institute of Physiotherapy, Belgaum, Karnataka
Background: The core has been referred to as the “Powerhouse,” the foundation or engine of all limb movements. All movements are generated from the core and translated to the extremities. Whereas the skaters need more core muscle strength for speed and stability.
Objective: To find out the effectiveness of core muscle strengthening on skating speed.
Study Design: Pre- and post-test experimental study design
Materials and Methods: The study involved 31 teenage competitive skaters within the age group of 12–18 years were taken. The core strength of each participant was measured before and after the training program using pressure biofeedback unit. Skating speed of the participants was assessed by instructing the participants to skate 300 m and the skating speed using with a stopwatch. The exercise consists of 4 day/week for 4 weeks swiss ball exercises.
Outcome Measures: Pressure biofeedback and stopwatch.
Results: The mean of core strength on precession was 51.61 ± 8.34, posttreatment was 55.97 ± 11.21 after 16 sessions of the treatment. The P value was found to be <0.0001 which is highly statistically significant. The mean of skating speed was 42.10 ± 3.71, which was decreased to mean of 38.48 ± 4.96 after the 16 sessions of treatment. The P value was found to be < 0.0001 which is highly statistically significant.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the protocol which consisted exercises given for 4 days/week for 4 weeks is effective in improving core muscle strength and speed in competitive roller skaters.
Keywords: Core strength, roller skating, speed
|How to cite this article:|
Ahammed N, Motimath B, Chivate D. Effect of core muscle strengthening on roller skating speed in competitive teenage skaters: An experimental study. Saudi J Sports Med 2018;18:113-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Ahammed N, Motimath B, Chivate D. Effect of core muscle strengthening on roller skating speed in competitive teenage skaters: An experimental study. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Jun 6];18:113-8. Available from: http://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2018/18/3/113/270318
| Introduction|| |
The core has been referred to as the “Powerhouse,” the foundation or engine of all limb movement. The muscular control is required around the lumbopelvic and hip region to maintain functional stability. Particular attention has been paid to the core because it serves as a muscular corset that works as a unit to stabilize the body and spine with and without limb movement. In short, the core serves as the center of the functional kinetic chain. All movements are generated from the core and translated to the extremities. A major advance in understanding of how muscles contribute to lumbar stabilization came from recognizing the difference between local and global muscles. Global (dynamic, phasic) muscles are the large, torque-producing muscles, such as the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and the thoracic part of lumbar iliocostalis, which link the pelvis to the thoracic cage and provide general trunk stabilization as well as movement. Local (postural, tonic) muscles are those that attach directly to the lumbar vertebrae and are responsible for spine providing segmental stability and directly controlling the lumbar segments during movement. These muscles include lumbar multifidus, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, the lumbar parts of iliocostalis and longissimus, transversus abdominis, the diaphragm, and the posterior fibers of internal oblique. Whereas previously, the major emphasis in rehabilitation has been given to strengthen the global muscles (e.g., the use of sit-ups as a treatment for low back pain); both groups of muscles must be working efficiently. It is concluded that strength is neither the only nor indeed the most important, quality of the muscle. The relationship between core strength and athletic performance is a focal point of many training paradigms. It is a common misconception that an individual's “core” consists of only the anterior abdominal musculature (i.e., the rectus abdominis muscles). Core strength is more accurately defined to include muscles of the upper thigh, glutei, and lower back. It is generally accepted by fitness professionals that core strength and stability are related to peak sport performance. The “core” is comprised several groups of muscles including the transversus abdominis, multifidus, diaphragm, and pelvic floor muscles. These muscles work together to produce the maximum stability in the abdominal and lumbar (lower back) region, as well as coordinate the movement of the arms, legs, and spine. The core strengthening exercises facilitate limb movements, prevent back injuries, facilitate proper utilization of muscle forces, and enhance performance. There are few studies done on core strengthening related to speed in different sports. The relationship between core stability and bowling speed has shown a significant improvement in bowling speed in well-developed core stability.
The aim of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of core strengthening exercises on an unstable surface (swiss ball) and to understand its effectiveness in improving skaters speed. Core stability is a multifaceted concept. According to Hibbs, core stability and core strength are interchanged commonly. Leetun said muscular capacity and motor control create core stability. Whereas Liemohn and Cowley referred to core stability as being comprised core strength, endurance, power, balance as well as coordination of the spine, hip, and abdominal musculature. Core stability is brought about by synergistic activation of agonist and antagonist. There is no isolated activation of single core muscle.
In line skates or roller skates, are hybrid cross between traditional roller skates and ice skates. Instead of a metal skate blade, there are three to five wheels lined up. In line, skating is different from roller skating. The skating technique more closely resembles ice skating, while many of the turning motions are similar to skiing. Today, skating is one of the fastest growing recreational activities. Several specialized disciplines exist including recreation/fitness skating, roller hockey, aggressive skating, and racing/speed skating.
A competitive skating has been gaining popularity as a form of recreational sports. Considering all incidence of trauma in pediatric population, falls, and sports specific injuries appear to be a major cause of injury. The neuromuscular system is not fully developed and maturational deficit in static and dynamic postural control. It is observed that in deficiencies in strength and balance are common in children. Researchers have been done to find out the correlation between strength and balance.
However, there is inadequate literature available pertaining to the effect of core muscle strengthening in skating speed. In this study, the effect of core muscle strengthening on roller skating speed in competitive teenage skaters is examined.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study involved competitive skaters who were practicing daily for their respective competition. Thirty-one teenage competitive skaters within the age group of 12–18 years were taken. The procedure was explained to the participants' parents, and they were randomly selected based on the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The informed assent was taken from the participants. The participants were explained about the procedures in detail and were given an opportunity for skating practice and 5 min warm-up which included jogging and stretching was set. The core strength of each participant was measured before and after the training program using pressure biofeedback unit (PBU). Skating speed of the participants was assessed by instructing the participants to skate 300 m as fast as possible, and the skating speed was measured using a stopwatch. The pre- and post-data were analyzed using the stopwatch. The exercise consists of 4 weeks swiss ball exercises, i.e., abdominal curl exercise, back extension exercise, pelvic bridge exercise, and side bridge. The exercise was performed once a day for four times per week with ten repetitions and a 10 s hold.
Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee. The study was conducted on both male and female skaters. The procedure was explained to participants' parents and they were randomly selected based on the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Informed assent was taken from the participants. The participants were explained about the procedures in detail and were given an opportunity to skating practice and set 5 min warm-up which included jogging and stretching. The core strength of each participant was measured before and after the exercise session using PBU. Skating speed of the participants was assessed by instructing the participants to skate 300 m as fast as possible and the skating speed was measured using a stopwatch. The pre- and post-data were analyzed using the stopwatch. The exercise consists of 4 weeks swiss ball exercises, i.e., abdominal curl exercise, back extension exercise, pelvic bridge exercise, and side bridge exercise were performed once a day for four times per week with ten repetitions and a 10 s hold.
| Results|| |
The study titled “Effect of core muscle strengthening on roller skating speed in competitive teenage skaters: An experimental study” included 31 participants. All the participants received swiss ball exercises for core muscles. The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of core muscle strength and skaters speed pre- and post-exercises. The study has shown significant on improvement in the core muscle strength and skaters speed.
The statistical analysis for the present study was done manually as well as using a statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) version 20.1 (IBM, SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) so as to verify the results obtained. For this purpose data was entered into an excel spread sheet, tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. To compare the pre and post data paired t test was used for evaluation. Normality of the pre test and post test of core strength and speed follows a normal distribution (P > 0.05) by Kolomogorov Smirnov test. Therefore, the dependent t test was applied..
The demographic data such as age, body mass index (BMI) were analyzed with mean of 13.61 ± 2.03 years and 18.86 ± 2.50 kg/m 2 respectively. The values of age and BMI are appropriate as per the Indian values.
A total of 31 competitive skaters participated in the study, out of which, 20 (64.52%) were males and 11 (35.48%) were females. This suggested that there is less participation of teenage competitive female skaters compared to males.
The participants of both genders were recruited within the age group of 12–18 years. The mean age according to statistical analysis is 13.61 years and BMI was 18.86 which are normal as per Indian values of BMI. According to the distribution of BMI in normal individual, participants in the study were of normal BMI (normal BMI = 18–24.9 kg/m 2).
In age distribution, there were 14 individuals (45.16%) of 12 years, 6 individuals of 13 years (19.35%), and 11 individuals were above 14 years (35.48%).
In BMI distribution, there were 16 participants (51.61%) who were underweight and 14 participants (45.16%) were of normal weight and there was one subject (3.23%) who was overweight. The outcome measure of the study, pressure biofeedback was analyzed. The present study was conducted to find out pre- and post-exercise effect of core muscle strength. The mean of core strength on precession was 51.61 ± 8.34, which increased to mean of 55.97 ± 11.21 after 16 sessions of treatment. The P value by dependent t-test was found to be <0.0001 which is highly significant [Table 1]. This suggested that there is an improvement in participants' core muscle strength after the treatment protocol.
|Table 1: Comparison of pre- and post-test of pressure biofeedback scores|
Click here to view
Another outcome measure of the study speed, which has assessed using a stopwatch and measure pre- and post-intervention. The present study was conducted to find out pre- and post-skating speed of skaters after the core muscle strength exercises. The mean of skating speed was 42.10 ± 3.71, which was decreased to mean of 38.48 ± 4.96 after the 16 sessions of treatment. The P value by dependent t-test was found to be <0.0001 which is highly significant [Table 2]. This suggested that there is an improvement in the participants skating speed after the treatment protocol. The normality of pre- and post-test scores of pressure biofeedback and speed done by Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. PBU and Speed follow a normal distribution (P > 0.05) by this test. Therefore, the dependent t-test was applied. This study suggested that well-developed core strength has a positive effect on skaters speed.
| Discussion|| |
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of core muscle strength on roller skating speed in competitive teenage skaters. The study involved competitive skaters who were practicing daily for their respective competition. Thirty-one teenage competitive skaters within the age group of 12–18 years were taken. The present study was specifically focused on the core muscle strength for the skating speed improvement.
Thus, the result of this study showed that null hypothesis which says that there will be no effect of core muscle strengthening on roller skaters speed can be rejected and alternative hypothesis has been accepted which says that there will be an effect of core muscle strengthening on roller skating speed.
In total, 31 competitive skaters participated in the study, out of which, 20 were males and 11 were females. The reason for less number of females may be less awareness or popularity of roller skating and less support from parents or may be attributed to the increased incidence of sports specific injuries due to the high specific activity requiring quick changes in direction. As a result of which there is reduced female participation.
The participants of both genders were recruited within the age group of 12–18 years. The mean age according to statistical analysis is 13.61 years. In age distribution, there were 14 participants (45.16%) of 12 years, 6 participants of 13 years (19.35%), and 11 participants above 14 years (35.48%).
The mean BMI was 18.86 which are normal as per Indian values of BMI according to the distribution of BMI in a normal individual. Participants in the study were of normal BMI. In BMI distribution, there were 16 participants (51.61%) who were underweight, and 14 participants were within the normal range, and there was one subject who was overweight. The rationale behind the lower BMI value among the present population may be due to their food habits. The parents' common complaints reported to the researcher in the present study were increase in the physical activity level which could not meet the nutritional status of the children due to food tantrums and picky food habits.
The effect of short-term (6 weeks) swiss ball training program on core stability and running economy in their experimental group showed no significant differences for myoelectric activity of the abdominal and back muscles on running economy or posture between both groups; however, they did find a significant effect on core stability. The present study is in agreement to the conclusion of the cited study with a difference in the duration of the present study which is of 4 weeks and skating speed which is significantly improved; the present study duration, objective, and outcome measures with intervention being similar as that of swiss ball for core exercises.
In the present study, the cause of increase in the speed of skaters could be due to improvement in core strength of the skater, where PBU was used to measure core muscle strength in each skater while a stopwatch was used to evaluate the change in skating speed pre- and post-exercise.
The relationship between strength of the leg muscles and the skaters speed checked among 17 young short track speed skaters showed that the skating times and speeds are primarily influenced by the strength of the leg extensors. In the present study, it is concluded that the increase of the speed of skaters was influenced due to the improvement in core strength of the skaters.
A group of researchers measured walking speed and gait cycle with stop watch and three-dimensional motion analyzer for ten healthy young individuals. They concluded that the stop watch and three-dimensional analyzer method is sufficient for the measurement of walking speed. Similarly, this study was used the stop watch to measure the skating speed.
A PBU was used to indirectly measure the subject's ability to perform an abdominal in drawing manoeuvre. Previous studies support the use of PBU as a reliable and valid clinical instrument to act as an indicator of deep abdominal functions. Similarly, the present study was also used the PBU to assess the core muscle strength of the competitive skaters after the training protocol.
In one more study which complied the intra-, inter-, and test re-test reliability of the PBU on ten individuals concluded that PB Unit is a reliable tool when utilized with a population of participants that can perform the abdominal drawing-in-test. In the present study, used the PBU to assess the pre-and post-core muscle strength.
There is a growing popularity of stabilization exercises proposed to enhance athletic performance and to develop muscles of the trunk hence, core strengthening is becoming a major trend. Since sports activity involves movement in three cardinal planes, core musculature must be assessed and trained these planes. However, clinical outcomes of core strengthening programs are lacking in the research, even though core stabilization programs are increased. As the present study was focused on athletic population, it resulted that there is an improvement in performance of skaters after the core strengthening exercises.
Athletes who participate in high impact sports that require great physical strength need strong core musculature to generate sufficient force to play their position safely and absorb the impact of collisions. Throwing or racquet athletes require strength and neuromuscular coordination throughout their trunk, pelvic, and shoulder girdle and lower extremities to generate the needed force from their proximal to distal upper extremity. Football players and hockey players must be able to generate force quickly while being able to perform highly coordinated movements. The present study has also shown that the athletes those who participating skating competition they need strong core musculature for their better performance.
In the present study, the swiss ball was used for core muscle strengthening exercises. After the 4 weeks of core muscle strengthening exercises on swiss ball, there was a significant increase in the core muscle strength. Core muscle strength was assessed with PBU. A study was done to assess lumbopelvic muscle activity during different core strengthening exercises on and off swiss ball, eight healthy volunteers were included in the study, they performed four different exercises on and off swiss ball, incline press ups, upper body roll out, single-leg hold, and quadruped exercises. Outcome measures used was electromyography from lumbopelvic muscles normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Results inferred that there was a significant increase in rectus abdominis muscle activation with the performance of single-leg hold and at the top of press up on swiss ball were greater than stable environment.
| Conclusion|| |
The present experimental study concluded that core muscle strengthening exercises were given for 4 days/week for 4 weeks to the competitive skaters showed significant results in improving core strength. It was also shown that the exercises clinically showed improvement in skaters speed after core exercise.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Brukner P. Brukner & Khan's Clinical Sports Medicine. North Ryde: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
Clayton MA, Trudo CE, Laubach LL, Linderman JK, De Marco GM, Barr S. Relationships between isokinetic core strength and field based athletic performance tests in male collegiate baseball players. J Exerc Physiol Online 2011;14:20-30.
Richardson C, Jull G, Hodges P, Hides J. Therapeutic Exercise for Segmental Stabilization in Low Back Pain: Scientific Basis and Clinical Approach. 1st
ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1999. p. 191.
Hilligan BK. The Relationship Between Core Stability and Bowling Speed in Asymptomatic Male Indoor Action Cricket Bowlers (Doctoral dissertation); 2008.
Durall CJ, Udermann BE, Johansen DR, Gibson B, Reineke DM, Reuteman P. The effects of preseason trunk muscle training on low-back pain occurrence in women collegiate gymnasts. J Strength Cond Res 2009;23:86-92.
Sherker S, Cassell E. In-line Skating Injury: A Review of the Literature. Victoria, Australia: Monash University, Accident Research Centre; 2002.
Stanton R, Reaburn PR, Humphries B. The effect of short-term Swiss ball training on core stability and running economy. J Strength Cond Res 2004;18:522-8.
Felser S, Behrens M, Fischer S, Heise S, Bäumler M, Salomon R, et al.
Relationship between strength qualities and short track speed skating performance in young athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2016;26:165-71.
Handa T, Sahara R, Yoshizaki K, Endou T, Utsunomiya M, Kuroiwa C, et al
. Examination of reliability and validity of walking speed, cadence, stride length: Comparison of measurement with stopwatch and three-dimension motion analyzer. J Phys Ther Sci 2007;19:213-22.
Hodges P, Richardson C, Jull G. Evaluation of the relationship between laboratory and clinical tests of transversus abdominis function. Physiother Res Int 1996;1:30-40.
Rowland T, Dustin R. Reliability of the pressure biofeedback unit. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2009; 91-B Suppl II:283.
McGill SM, Childs A, Liebenson C. Endurance times for low back stabilization exercises: Clinical targets for testing and training from a normal database. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:941-4.
Karageanes SJ, editor. Principles of Manual Sports Medicine. Baltimore, Maryland: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
Marshall PW, Murphy BA. Core stability exercises on and off a Swiss ball. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:242-9.
[Table 1], [Table 2]