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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 124-127

Effect of standing Pilates on balance in basketball players


Department of Physiotherapy, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication6-Nov-2019

Correspondence Address:
Rasika Panse
Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra
India
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DOI: 10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_59_16

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  Abstract 


Background: Balance is a necessary component in sport activities to reduce noncontact injuries specifically in basketball players. Balance training during competitive season reduces the occurrence of injury by 38%. Hence, in this study, we evaluated the effect of standing Pilates on balance in basketball players.
Aim: This study aims to study the effect of standing Pilates on balance in basketball players.
Objectives: To find out balance using star excursion test and activity specific balance confidence (SEBT and ASBC) scale in basketball players.
Materials and Methods: In pre-post experimental study design, 30 basketball players between the age group 18 and 35 years were included in the study. By taking prior consent individuals balance and confidence were assessed using SEBT and ASBC, data were collected and analyzed. Beginners Pilate's exercises were taught in the 1st week, and intermittent and advanced were introduced in the 3rd and 4th week. Postintervention assessment was performed and data were analyzed.
Results: Mean age was 22 ± 0.7 in which 13 males and 13 females were included in the study. 4 subjects dropped out from the study. Data were analyzed and students paired t-test was used. Mean of pre SEBT(R) and mean of post SEBT(R) 2.51 ± 0.58 was compared with paired t-test with P value (0.000) was statistically significant. Mean of pre-SEBT(L) and mean of post SEBT(L) 2.25 ± 0.86 was compared with paired t-test with P value (0.000) was statistically significant. Mean of pre-ASBC and mean of post-ASBC 13.7 ± 3.52 was compared with paired t-test with P value (0.000) was statistically significant.
Conclusion: There is a significant effect of standing Pilates on balance in basketball players.

Keywords: Activity-specific balance confidence scale, balance, basketball players, Pilates, star excursion balance test


How to cite this article:
Panse R, Piwal P, Yeole U, Gharote G, Kulkarni S, Pawar P. Effect of standing Pilates on balance in basketball players. Saudi J Sports Med 2018;18:124-7

How to cite this URL:
Panse R, Piwal P, Yeole U, Gharote G, Kulkarni S, Pawar P. Effect of standing Pilates on balance in basketball players. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Nov 18];18:124-7. Available from: http://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2018/18/3/124/270322








  Introduction Top


Balance is considered to be an important aspect of performance of all individuals while undertaking various daily activities, which is achieved by a complex process involving the function of musculoskeletal and neurological systems. Balance has the ability of maintaining the position of the center of gravity (COG) and it vertically over the base of support and it related on rapid, continuous feedback from visual, vestibular, and somatosensory. It has been seen that balance trainings have reduced the risk of some musculoskeletal system injuries such as ankle sprain and after both static and dynamic balance trainings, it has been observed that training groups have a lower risk of injury.[1]

Balance make athletes prevent from injuries during playing basketball, for example, fracture, musculoskeletal disorder, and falls during playing. Balance training was demonstrated to reduce muscular strength, imbalance between the legs and to effective for gaining muscular strength.[2] In basketball, the standard strength takes a leading role in training; strength training allows players to improve their physical abilities and athletic performance and therefore, their outcomes during games and to prevent injuries. Basketball players have dynamic balance performance higher than the performance of volleyball and football players.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5]

Basketball players address physical contact and various situations involving balance instability, such as basketball-specific accelerations and decelerations, changes in direction, penetrations into the defensive perimeter, and boxing out, dribbling and defense position recovery. These actions are often performed in a very limited space and require very fast movement, high coordination ability, and appropriate strength. Disequilibrium can be found in every specific movement of basketball, such as in the twisting movement of feet (particularly the pivot foot), jump shots as well as offensive and defensive rebounds.[5]

Jumping/landing and sudden turn twists or stops were the most common causes of injuries in young basketball players. Jumping/landing caused the majority of the knee and ankle ligament sprains documented. Repetitive jumping in basketball imposes recurring, consistent vertical ground reaction forces of up to 4 times body weight on the weight-bearing knee joint. The maturing (adolescent) neuromuscular system may be unable to maintain knee stability and around joint control, leading to forces above the physiological threshold, with an inevitable injury to the knee joint structures. Intervention programs that focus on jumping or balance training in these players could prove to be effective injury prevention strategy.[6]

The process of keeping balance in the standing position may be disrupted by effects of physical activity occurring during the game. Any possible disorders in keeping balance in the standing position shall be negatively manifested in the control of body positioning in game situations and in this way the activity of scoring points shall be hindered. The body remains in balance if the disruptions do not exceed critical values and displacements of the COG oscillate within a safe, constant range. Basketball training improves the level of balance, especially referring to standing on one lower limb and as the player spends the majority of the time on one of the limb. The decrease in the ability to maintain balance may also result from fatigue, thus a coach should wisely use the abilities of his players since a loss of balance may lead to injuries and can also influence the final score Significant balance disturbances may consequently hinder the performance of the particular tasks on the court by a basketball player.[7]

Specific Pilates exercises, originally introduced by Joseph Hubertus Pilates have also been exploited for increasing the muscular mass in the body [8] Pilates training intends to improve the general muscular strength and balance.[9] Joseph Pilates believed that mobilizing early in rehabilitation decreased the convalescence period after a musculoskeletal injury.[10]

Hence, in this study, standing Pilates was administered, and its effect on balance was assessed in basketball players.

Need of study

Poor balance has been associated with increased injury risk among athletes.

Basketball is a contact sport which requires high physical activity, and as the player spends the majority of time on one of the limb this causes fatigue, and due to sudden running and stopping activities they go off balance which increases chances of injury.

Hence, basketball is a sport which requires dynamic balance.

The ability to maintain balance is an individual feature which depends on our body structure and training since basketball players are statistically tall and lean, it can be presumed that this ability may not be favorable for balance in basketball players. Pilates is the form of exercise that concentrates on the core muscle and help in improving the balance of individual

Therefore, this study was conducted to find the effect of standing Pilates moves on balance in basketball players.


  Materials and Methods Top


In this study, pre-post experimental design was selected for basketball players, in which 30 subjects according to inclusion criteria were selected randomly between the age group 18 and 35, who are state level players, playing for more than 2 years professionally, those with recent lower extremity injury or surgery were excluded.

Procedure

Prior consent of the individual was taken. Players were explained about the procedure and the need of study. Prior assessment of individuals balance was assessed using the star excursion balance test (SEBT) (4 directions, anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral) and for assessing patient's confidence activity-specific balance confidence (ASBC) scale was used. Pilates training included standing Pilates for the duration of 4 weeks. Basic Pilates exercises were taught in the 1st and 2nd week and intermittent and advanced were introduced in the 3rd and 4th week. After the training was completed reassessment was performed of the following players of balance and confidence to watch the effect of standing Pilates on balance and improvement in performance and skill of the players, and also a watch was kept on the risk of injury with P value (0.000) was statistically significant.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis for this study was performed using the Student's paired t-test. A paired t-test was used as the statistical tool to compare the results between the pre-post value of SEBT and ASBC scale. The probability value for this study was P (0.00) which was considered as statistically significant. All scoring was performed by the same 30 subject.


  Results Top


Mean age was 22 ± 0.7 in which 13 males and 13 females were included. Four subjects dropped out from study. Data were analyzed and students paired t-test was used. Mean of pre SEBT(R) and mean of post SEBT(R) 2.51 ± 0.58 was compared with paired t-test with P value (0.000) was statistically significant. Mean of pre-SEBT(L) and mean of post SEBT(L) 2.25 ± 0.86 was compared with paired t-test with P value (0.000) was statistically significant. Mean of pre-ASBC and mean of post-ASBC 13.7 ± 3.52 was compared with paired t-test with P value (0.000) was statistically significant. Mean of pre SEBT(R) and mean of post SEBT(R) for male players was 3.15 ± 0.00 was compared with paired t-test with P value (0.000) was statistically significant. Mean of pre SEBT(R) and mean of post SEBT(R) for female players was 2.47 ± 0.36 was compared with paired t-test with P value (0.000) was statistically significant. Mean of pre-SEBT(L) and mean of post SEBT(L) for male players was 2.10 ± 0.48 was compared with paired t-test with P value (0.000) was statistically significant. Mean of pre-SEBT(L) and mean of post SEBT(L) for females 2.42 ± 0.05 was compared with paired t-test.


  Discussion Top


The results for this study showed statistically significant effect of standing Pilates on balance and increased confidence and abilities of young basketball players to perform on basketball court.

The ability to maintain balance is an individual feature which depends on our body structure and training, Since basketball players are statistically tall and lean, it can be presumed that this ability may not be favorable for balance in basketball players leading to alteration in balance.[7]

Since basketball involves abrupt and intense changes in direction, high frequencies of starting, stopping, and physical contact, hence it may be associated with the ability to maintain balance while moving, shooting, dribbling, etc.[11] It is hypothesized that basketball players who remain uninjured over the course of a sport season would demonstrate significantly greater core strength measures than those who reported an injury. Core stability has an important role in injury prevention. Pilates can help to improve your core muscle contraction.[12]

Standing Pilates improves balance and confidence may lead to task-specific neural adaptations at the spinal and supraspinal levels by suppressing spinal reflex excitability such as the muscle stretch reflex during postural tasks which leads to less destabilizing movements and improved balance.[13]

The presence of significant improvement in agility may also be attributed to neurological adaptation to activity and proprioceptive action of the trained joints and soft tissues. Another factor that might have played role in improvement could be motor recruitment. According to the improvements due to plyometrics was a result of enhanced motor unit recruitment pattern. According to Craig neural adaptations usually occur when athletes respond or react as a result of improved coordination between the central nervous system signal and proprioceptive feedback. However, it could not be determined whether synchronous firing of the motor neurons or better facilitation of neural impulses to spinal cord resulted in neural adaptations. Therefore, more studies are needed to determine neural adaptations as a result of dynamic balance training and how it affects agility.[14]

Pilates uses a systematic practice of specific exercises designed to stretch, strengthen and balance the body. Pilates involves proper breathing techniques in conjunction with sport training, rehabilitation. Furthermore, it teaches your body to favor one leg or overdevelop certain muscle groups through the evenness of exercises eliminating fatigue and reducing risk of lower extremity injury in-turn improving confidence and improvement of performance during sports season.[14]

Moria Merrithew, founder of the STOTT PILATES, has incorporated Pilates and sports medicine to improve athletic performance inspired from the original exercises by Joseph Pilates.[14]

Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of standing Pilates on balance in basketball players.


  Conclusion Top


Pilates showed significant improvement on balance in Basketball Players

Future scope of study

  • Larger sample size
  • Different Geographical Areas
  • Longer duration
  • Advanced equipment for analysis of balance like Force plate Analysis or EMG analysis.


Acknowledgment

I am deeply grateful to the GOD ALMIGHTY AND I am also grateful to Dr. Ujwal Yeole (PT) our HOD for allowing me to carry forward this project further.

I am undoubted to my project guide Dr. Rasika Panse (PT) whose constant interests in the project keep me going. Had it not been for her advice and counseling at every steps of this project, this mission would have never taken such form.

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to all those who really helped me with it and all the basketball players.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Gökdemir K, Ci Erci AE, Er F, Suveren C, Sever O. The comparison of dynamic and static balance performance of sedentary and different branches athletes. World Appl Sci J 2012;17:1079-82.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Manshouri M, Rahnama N, Khorzoghi MB. Effects of Pilates exercise on flexibility and volleyball serve skill in female college students. International journal of current research 2014;6:11188-92. Available from: http://www.journalcra.com. [Last accessed on 2019 Aug 17].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Amiri R, Payandeh M, Nezhad SB, Zadeh SH. The impact of Pilates training on lower extremity function of mentally retarded students. 2016;10 (Suppl 4):42-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Boccolini G, Brazzit A, Bonfanti L, Alberti G. Using balance training to improve the performance of youth basketball players. Sports science for health 2013;9:37-42. Doi: 10.1007 S 11332-013-0143-2.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Owoeye OB, Akodu AK, Oladokun BM, Akinbo SR. Incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol 2012;4:15.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Struzik A, Zawadzki J, Pietraszewski B. Balance disorders caused by running and jumping occurring in young basketball players. Acta Bioeng Biomech 2015;17:103-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Rydeard R, Leger A, Smith D. Pilates-based therapeutic exercise: Effect on subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain and functional disability: A randomized controlled trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2006;36:472-84.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Amorim T, Sousa F, Machado L, Santos JA. Effects of Pilates training on muscular strength and balance in ballet dancers. Portuguese Journal of Sport Science 2011;11 (Suppl 2):147-50.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Available from:http://www.health.gov.av/internet/main/publishing.nst/ Scientific information. Version 1.9 Modified 28 April 2010.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Michael L, Hobbs BS. Dynamic balance and basketball playing ability. Texas, USA: Texas State University San Morcess; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Hrysomallis C. Balance ability and athletic performance. Sports Med 2011;41:221-32.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Saraswat A, Malhotra D, Sivaram C. Effect of dynamic balance training on agility in male basketball players. International Journal of Physiotherapy 2015;2:798-803.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Hoppens D. Pilates Principles: CEC Article Vol 3, 2003. Available from: http://www.aquacert.org/cec32003.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Aug 17].  Back to cited text no. 14
    




 

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