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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 82-85

Comparison of Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test for the prediction of VO2max


Department of Physiotherapy, School of Medical and Allied Sciences, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission10-Feb-2020
Date of Decision23-Jul-2020
Date of Acceptance25-Jul-2020
Date of Web Publication21-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Neeraj Kumar
Department of Orthopaedic Physiotherapy, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam College of Physiotherapy, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Loni, Maharashtra
India
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DOI: 10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_2_20

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  Abstract 

Background: There are various field tests to predict VO2max. The Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test are among them, which are easy to administer and give good result. The purpose of this study was to see the differences in the result of VO2max predicted by Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test in the adult North Indian population.
Methodology: A total of sixty college/university students from North India, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, were divided into two equal groups of thirty each. Group A performed Rockport one-mile walk test and Group B performed McArdle step test.
Results and Analysis: The mean age (years), height (cm), weight (kg), and VO2max (ml/kg/min) of Group A were 19.73 (±1.34), 172.37 (±8.52), 63.23 (±11.01), and 55.47 (±3.73), respectively, whereas the mean age (years), height (cm), weight (kg), and VO2max (ml/kg/min) of Group B were 19.30 (±1.02), 174.17 (±7.56), 70.03 (±7.11), and 53.12 (±9.37), respectively. T-test applied between both groups, and there is no statistically significant difference found in age (0.164), height (0.392), weight (0.006), and VO2max (0.206) between both groups.
Conclusion: This study has concluded that there is no difference between the Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test for the prediction of VO2max. Hence, we can use any of the tests, either Rockport one-mile walk or McArdle step test, for calculating VO2max in any individuals.

Keywords: McArdle step test, Rockport 1 mile walk test, VO2 max


How to cite this article:
Kumar N, Goswami S. Comparison of Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test for the prediction of VO2max. Saudi J Sports Med 2019;19:82-5

How to cite this URL:
Kumar N, Goswami S. Comparison of Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test for the prediction of VO2max. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Sep 18];19:82-5. Available from: http://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2019/19/3/82/292946




  Introduction Top


VO2 max is also considered as cardiorespiratory fitness, which is a vital component of health-related physical fitness since its more elevated level sustains the capacity to continue moderate-to-high-intensity practice for delayed timeframes, whereas lower levels raise the danger of different ailment conditions, for example, coronary supply route sickness, hypertension, stroke, corpulence, and Type 2 diabetes.[1] Cardiorespiratory endurance exercises help the body to turn out to be increasingly productive and better ready to adapt to physical difficulties.[2] The VO2 max is measured in ml/kg/min. The average VO2 max values range from 45 ml/kg/min for a sedentary 35-year-old male to 55 ml/kg/min for an average 35-year-old male runner and 65 ml/kg/min for a locally competitive male runners. The elite runners may have a VO2 max value of 70–85 ml/kg/min. Women's VO2 max level is about 10% lower than men because of difference in physiological characteristics.[3],[4] If there is a high VO2 max, the heart has the ability to pump a large amount of blood with every beat, and the circulatory system can efficiently deliver that blood to the working muscles.[4],[5] Training improves the ability to sustain a high percentage of maximal heart rate for long periods of time, heart's stroke volume, the size and number of mitochondria in the muscles, the density of capillaries, and the proportion of blood sent to working muscles.[6] We can measure VO2 max with different techniques either performed in the laboratory or in the field. Laboratory tests are much accurate and have higher validity than the field test. However, the tests performed for VO2 max in the laboratory are much more expensive and cannot be performed for everyday practice. On the other hand, the field test is cheaper and can be performed on a daily basis.[7] Commonly used exercise testing methods include field tests, treadmill tests, cycle ergometry tests, and step tests. There are various field tests available to measure VO2 max effectively,[8] in which the Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test are also being used. Rockport one-mile walk test is used to calculate VO2 max, for both men and women, of poor fitness who are not able to complete a similar distance run test,[9] whereas McArdle step test is a useful test for clients with higher levels of aerobic fitness.[10] Since the target population for both tests is different, hence the measurement result of both tests may have any differences also. There is a paucity of researches which reported differences in the result of both these tests if applied on a normal healthy individual. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the result of VO2 max predicted by the Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test in the adult North Indian population.


  Methodology Top


Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of Galgotias University, Greater Noida. A total of sixty college/University students between the age group of 18 and 25 years without any recent medical or surgical condition who are devoid of taking any substance abuse or psychotherapy were randomly selected in this study. All participants first filled the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire and then submitted a written informed consent form for their voluntary participation. Then, all these sixty participants were divided randomly into two equal groups. Group A consists of thirty participants who performed VO2 max test using Rockport one-mile walk test, and Group B consists of thirty participants who performed VO2 max test using McArdle step test.

The selected participants were asked to present on a prescribed date and time. Only ten people were asked to report at a particular date and time. The participants were asked to report at least 30 min before the testing and asked not to ingest any food or caffeine within 3 h of testing. The entire test was performed either in the morning or evening session. The environment temperature for both field tests was maintained at 25°C.

Rockport one-mile walk test

This test is being used to measure VO2 max.

Equipment required:

  • One-mile track
  • Stopwatch
  • Pulse oximeter.


The participants walked as fast as possible for one mile. After walking one mile, immediately the pulse rate was measured.

Scoring: VO2 max can be calculated by the formula:

  • For females: VO2 max = 139.168 − (0.388 × age) − (0.077 × weight in lb) − (3.265 × walk time in minutes) − (0.156 × heart rate)
  • For males: VO2 max = 139.168 − (0.388 × age) − (0.077 × weight in lb) − (3.265 × walk time in minutes) − (0.156 × heart rate) + 6.318.


McArdle step test

This test used to measure exercising heart rate from which VO2 max can be estimated. This test is useful for clients who are aerobic fitness of a higher level.

Equipment required:

  • Step of 16.25 inch (41.3 cm)
  • Stopwatch
  • Metronome.


Procedure

The participants stepped up and down on the platform at a rate of 22 steps per minute for females and at 24 steps per minute for males. The participants performed to step using a four-step cadence, “up-up-down-down” for 3 min. The participants stopped immediately on completion of the test, and the heartbeats had been counted from 5 to 20 s of recovery.

An estimation of VO2 max is then calculated from the test results, using the following formula (McArdle et al., 1972).

  • For men: VO2 max (ml/kg/min) = 111.33 − (0.42 × heart rate [bpm])
  • For women: VO2 max (ml/kg/min) = 65.81 − (0.1847 × heart rate [bpm]).


Statistical analysis

Mean and standard deviation were used to prepare descriptive statistics. Unpaired t-test was used to determine the differences between both the groups among all the variables. All these statistical analyses were done on SPSS v 16, IBM, Chicago, IL, USA.


  Results and Analysis Top


The mean age (years), height (cm), weight (kg), and VO2 max (ml/kg/min) of Group A and Group B are shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Descriptive statistics of Group A and Group B

Click here to view


Student's t-test applied between both groups, and there was no statistically significant difference found in age (0.164), height (0.392), and VO2 max (0.206) between both groups, as shown in [Table 2].
Table 2: Student's t-test between Group A and Group B

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


This study was done to determine the comparison between Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test, which shows no statistically significant difference in the VO2 max.

Therefore, we can say that both of these tests can alternatively be used for the prediction of VO2 max as both are showing similar findings of VO2 max.

Rockport one-mile walk test is the simplest test that can be performed by any individual of any age groups. A previous study suggested that the Rockport one-mile walk test has been used for measuring VO2 max from a one-fourth-mile walk to the traditional distance of one-mile for accuracy as a steady-state field test.[11] However, it was noted previously that the participants who participated in this study did only the normal walking technique and did not include the aerobic walking technique for their validity investigation, which accepts the results based on the relationship between heart rate and VO2 in predicting maximal oxygen consumption. Furthermore, there appears to be no learning effect for the Rockport one-mile walk test as the result of eliminating the maximal pace of the original Rock port one-mile walk test. The findings[12],[13] indicated that acceptable test–retest reliability of the Rockport one-mile walk test was a function of practice and learning how to pace oneself at a maximal pace throughout the entire one-mile walk, which seems logical to assume that a shorter version of the Rockport one-mile walk test could also be developed to elicit an acceptable steady-state for predicting VO2 max when compared to other similar field tests.

In a study on the validity of McArdle step test in comparison with ergometer bicycle test for measuring maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), there was no statistically significant difference was found in the results of both the tests. As per the result, it was proposed that McArdle step test can be used for measuring maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max).[14] In another study, Satipati et al.[15] examined the validity of step test for estimating maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of the female student. They concluded that the step test can be used to estimate the maximum oxygen uptake. Buckley et al.[16] evaluated the validity and reliability of the step test for estimating the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and suggested that there are no statistically significant differences of VO2 max between both the groups.


  Conclusion Top


This study has revealed that there is no difference between the Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test for the prediction of VO2 max. Hence, we can use any of the tests, either the Rockport one-mile or McArdle step test for calculating VO2 max in any individual.

It can also be concluded that if any individual who is not able to perform McArdle step test can perform Rockport one-mile walk test for calculating VO2 max, as both the tests give similar results.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Kumar N, Srivastava D, Tiwari NN, Dwivedi S. Effective time for consumption of preexercise energy drink to enhance cardiorespiratory fitness. Saudi J Sports Med 2017;17:79-81.  Back to cited text no. 1
  [Full text]  
2.
Kumar N, Laroiya N. Association of VO2 Max, Agility and BMI among collegiate athletes. Ann Sports Med Res 2017;4:1121.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sharma HB, Kailashiya J. Gender difference in aerobic capacity and the contribution by body composition and haemoglobin concentration: A study in young Indian national hockey players. J Clin Diagnostic Res 2016;10:CC09-13.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kenney WL, Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Physiology of sports and exercise. 5th ed. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, Sex Differences in Sports and Exercise: 2012. p. 472-94.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Evans DL. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise and training. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1985;1:513-31.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Kumar N, Archana, Priyanka S. To determine the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with anthropometric characteristics in collegiate athletes. Srb J Sports Sci 2015;9:27-30.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Kumar N, Sharma S. Effect of tobacco chewing on VO2 max. Med Sportiva 2011;3:1680-4.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kumar N, Agrahari R. Effect of pre-exercise sports Drink on cardio-respiratory fitness. Med Sportiva 2012;8:1846-51.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Seneli RM, Ebersole KT, O'Connor KM, Snyder AC. Estimated VO2 max from the Rockport Walk Test on a nonmotorized curved treadmill. J Strength Cond Res 2013;27:3495-505.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Andrade CH, Cianci RG, Malaguti C, Corso SD. The use of step tests for the assessment of exercise capacity in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease. J Bras Pneumol 2012;38:116-24.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
George JD, Fellingham GW, Fisher AG. A modified version of the Rockport Fitness Walking Test for college men and women. Res Q Exerc Sport 1998;69:205-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Kline G, Porcari J, Hintermeister R, Freedson P, Ward A, McCarron R, et al. Estimation of VO2 max from a 1 mile track walk, age, gender and body weight. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987;19:253-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Fenstermaker KL, Plowman SA, Looney MA. Validation of the rockport fitness walking test in females 65 years and older. Res Q Exerc Sport 1992;63:322-7.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Chatterjee S, Chatterjee P, Mukherjee PS, Bandyopadhyay A. Validity of queen college step test for use with young Indian men. Br J Sports Med 2004;38:289-91.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Satipati CJ, Pratima C, Amit B. Validity of queens college step test for estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in female student. Indian J Med Red 2005;121:32-5.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Buckley JP, Sim J, Eston RG, Hession R, Fox R. Reliability and validity of measures taken during the Chester step test to predict aerobic power and to prescribe aerobic exercise. Br J Sports Med 2004;38:197-205.  Back to cited text no. 16
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Methodology
Results and Analysis
Discussion
Conclusion
References
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