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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May-August 2019
Volume 19 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 31-67

Online since Tuesday, July 7, 2020

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Core stability and its impact on upper extremity function in racket sports: A narrative review p. 31
Sohel Ahmed, Rahemun Akter, Avi Saraswat, Vandana Esht
Over the past decade, core stability exercise has become popular for injury prevention and performance enhancement. Although there is scarcity of literature, core stability has become a well-recognized component in athletic performance and injury prevention. This study aimed to report about the current evidence for the impact of core stability on upper extremity function in racket sports. A structured literature search was conducted in various electronic database including PubMed, Scopus, PEDro, Directory of Research Journals Indexing, Google Scholar, and Embase till April 2019 for this narrative review. We selected studies related to racket sports that measure core stability and upper extremity function published in peer-reviewed journal. A total of 17 studies were shortlisted; however, following the application of exclusion and inclusion criteria, finally five were reviewed. Majority of the studies reported that core stability exercise can enhance upper extremity performance in racket sports. Core stability training is very important for athletic performance enhancement, especially it gives benefits to enhance upper extremity function in racket sports. However, there is still limited evidence regarding this issue; hence, further well-designed research required in this field.
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Common injuries in resistance training p. 38
Ahmed Mohammed Alqarni
Many life-threatening medical illnesses are caused by physical inactivity. The rising awareness of this issue has motivated people to incorporate sports into their daily activities. Resistance training (RT) is a popular form of training, and there are an increasing number of people practicing it due to its enormous range of health benefits. The possibility of injuries while practicing RT raises the question of whether RT is safe and worth the health benefits. Most RT injuries are preventable by various corrective actions that can be easily taken. Most RT injuries occur in the shoulder, back, and knee joints. Shoulder injuries can be of the acute or overuse type and are caused by biomechanical and physiological factors that can be addressed and corrected. Back injuries occur mainly in the lumbar area. Injuries vary from traumatic to overuse injuries. Lumbar kinematics and physiological components are the main factors that contribute to injuries, which can be prevented by adjusting the method of training, using proper machines, and using protective equipment. Knee injuries are the least common injuries. They are caused by the biomechanical and physiological changes caused by repeated flexion and extension while bearing weight during RT. Furthermore, anatomical knee joint abnormalities expose the knee injuries. Early detection of these abnormalities, proper training, and good coaching could prevent such injuries.
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Acute potassium phosphate intake after exercise has no effect on subsequent exercise-induced performance time, substrate oxidation, and food intake in men p. 43
Haitham A. Daoud, Omar Obeid, Abdullah F. Alghannam, Shaea A. Alkahtani
Background: Phosphorus availability during exercise is believed to positively affect adenosine triphosphate availability, increase glycogen synthesis, and enhance exercise performance. Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of potassium phosphate intake after exercise on physiological responses during subsequent running at anaerobic threshold and on appetite and food intake postexercise in men. Settings and Design: Nine moderately active young men (age, 22 ± 3 years; body mass index, 22.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2; and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 48.5 ± 6.3 ml/kg/min) underwent two experimental conditions. Each condition consisted of two time-to-exhaustion treadmill running tests (time to exhaustion [TTE]) (bout 1 and 2), separated by 3 h recovery. During the recovery, either 500 mg phosphorus in the form of potassium phosphate or placebo was consumed with a glucose solution (1.2 g glucose/10 ml water × body weight) over 3 h. Methods: Expired gas was collected during the running. Appetite using visual analog scale and food intake from access to an ad libitum meal were measured after the second TTE run. Exercise intensity, VO2,and running speed were 67 ± 3% VO2peak, 32.3 ± 4.5 ml/kg/min, and at 10.1 ± 1.1 km/h, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were checked for normality, and Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was performed. Physiological variables, duration of exercise tests, and postexercise food intake and appetite sensations were analyzed using univariate ANOVA with interaction of exercise order and conditions. Results: There was no group effect in running time of the 2nd TTE although running time was reduced by ~ 5% in the placebo condition and by ~ 37% in the potassium phosphate condition in comparison to running time of the 1st TTE. A group × time interaction was present for the 1st exercise bout (P = 0.03). There were no interactions of condition (placebo and potassium phosphate) and running bouts (1st and 2nd) on respiratory exchange ratio, whole-body fat oxidation, and carbohydrate oxidation, but the interaction effect on VO2trended toward significance (F = 3.97, P = 0.06). There were no differences between conditions for appetite sensations and food intake. Conclusions: An acute dose of potassium phosphate after exercise did not affect subsequent exercise performance, exercise-induced substrate oxidation, and food intake. Potassium phosphate did not seem to affect metabolic responses and appetite in an ecological setting with repeated exercise and access to food during recovery.
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Study on the effects of lower body plyometrics and dynamic stretching on vertical jump in female collegiate volleyball players p. 51
Usman Thattarauthodiyil, K. Bhaskar Shenoy, Mohammad Jaffar Sadiq Mantargi
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training and plyometric exercises with dynamic stretching program on vertical jump height (VJH) in female student volleyball athletes. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled study was performed for an 8-week period, with a total number of 90 female volleyball athletes ranging from the age group of between 18 and 22 years. The participants were randomly arranged as two experimental groups and one control group with 30 members in every group. All the participants were analyzed their vertical jump performance with Sargent jump test before starting the exercise training. The performance of VJH was reassessed at the end of every 2 weeks till the completion of training program. Results: The present study results showed a significant improvement on VJH at the end of every 2 weeks in both experimental groups. The maximum effect of VJH was noticed at the end of 8th weeks. The obtained effects of both experimental groups were significantly higher as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, the dynamic stretching with plyometric training group had a significantly better performance on VJH as compared to the experimental Group 1 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study results express that the dynamic stretching with plyometric exercises can be the more advantageous training program for a better vertical jump performance in female college student volleyball athletes.
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An incidence survey of the female athlete triad in school and college level female athletes in Dakshina Karnataka, India p. 56
Keerthika Veer Ranji, Joseph Oliver Raj Alexander, Kshama Susheel Shetty
Introduction: The female athlete triad (FAT) being a major health concern received global recognition, but not much effort has been put in this direction in India. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of the FAT, in school and college level professional female athletes in Dakshina Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Survey was conducted using a cluster sampling technique on 64 female athletes between the age group of 15 and 22 years, actively involved in any sports for at least 2 years. The three components of the triad were assessed using standardized, valid, and reliable tools of assessment. Eating disorders were assessed using Eating Attitude Test-26 Scale. Peripheral ankle dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry used to assess bone mineral density. Menstrual abnormalities were assessed based on the predetermined set of questions. Data Interpretations and Results: Descriptive statistics revealed that 6% of the sample studied suffers from FAT, 19% have two components, and 33% have one component positive, that is, they are at high risk of the positive triad. Conclusion: The incidence of the FAT is low, but a significant proportion of the studied sample is at high risk for the triad.
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Surgical treatment of chondral defect of patella associated with patellar subluxation p. 62
Naif Mohammed Alhamam, Ronald A. Dimentberg, Ahmed Khalid Almulhim, Omar Abdullaziz Alanzi
We present the case of a 49-year-old patient brought to the hospital with sudden onset of pain and swelling after falling down on a flexed knee while playing football. In the history review, the patient denied any patellar dislocation, previous injury, and surgical interventions. Examination revealed a grossly swollen knee anteriorly, with tenderness and moderate-to-severe effusion. Magnetic resonance images showed injury to the medial patellofemoral ligament and loose cartilage fragments, which is a rare occurrence without patellar dislocation. Surgery was done 5-day postinjury. To prevent the future complication of the injury, the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the osteochondral fragment with 3.0-mm cannulated screw. After a year, the patient underwent the removal of screw and diagnostic arthroscopy, which portrayed that the patella cartilage had healed. The patient return to playing football 9 months after the surgery.
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Snapping and irritation of iliotibial band due to long-standing lateral femoral exostosis p. 66
Ganesh Singh Dharmshaktu, Tanuja Pangtey, Shailendra Singh Bhandari
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