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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 87-89

A study of the effect of automobile pollution on pulmonary function tests of exposed Sportsmen


1 Department of Physiology, PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Anesthesiology, Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Physiology, Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication20-Dec-2013

Correspondence Address:
Amrith Pakkala
Department of Physiology, PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh
India
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-6308.123384

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  Abstract 

Background : Urbanization is associated with an enormous increase in vehicular traffic emitting exhausts and polluting the atmosphere. Airborne dust plays a key part in the overall atmospheric pollution and motor vehicle emissions constitute the most significant source of ultra-particle in an urban environment. Traffic related air pollution is an occupational health hazard to individuals with a work environment close to traffic. Sportsmen who practice near grounds located in the vicinity of traffic junctions through which the maximum number of vehicles passes are more prone to develop health issues pertaining to the respiratory system. The present study intends to study the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary system in sportsmen exposed to automobile exhaust. Material and Methods: This study was conducted by performing pulmonary function tests (PFT) on 20 sportsmen who are exposed to automobile exhaust by virtue of their practicing venue nearer to traffic junctions and comparing them with 20 other age, gender matched and similar anthropometric profile sportsmen who practice in a rural setting free from vehicular air pollution., PFT by computerized spirometer measuring forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV 1 ) , FEV 1 /FVC, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25-75% were measured. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student t-test (two tailed, independent) for inter group analysis. Results: On comparison of pulmonary function test PFT in the study and control group was seen that there is a decline in dynamic pulmonary function parameters in the study group when compared to controls which is statistically significant. Conclusion: This was a comparative study to demonstrate the effect of air pollution due to automobile exhaust on pulmonary functions of sportsmen exposed to a polluted urban environment with a similar group in the rural relatively pollution free environment., PFT by computerized spirometer measuring FVC, FEV 1, FEV 1 /FVC, PEFR and FEF 25-75% were measured. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed. It was found that there is a significant decline in various PFT parameters recorded in the study group as compared to the control group.

  Abstract in Arabic 

خلفية الدراسة يترافق التمدن مع إزدياد هائل في حركة السيارات والتي ينبعث منها دخان العادم الذي يلوث الجو . وكما هو معروف يلعب الغبار المحمول في الهواء دوراً إضافيا في تلوث الجو ولكن يعتبر انبعاث عادم السيارات أهم مصدر للجزئيات الدقيقة في البيئة المدنية. ومن الثابت علميا إن تلوث الهواء الناجم عن حركة السيارات يمثل خطراً صحياً مهنياً للأفراد في بيئة عمل قريبة من المرور. بالاضافة الى ذلك فإن الرياضيين الذين يتدربون في ملاعب قريبة من التقاطعات المرورية التي تمر بها أعداد كبيرة السيارات يكونوا عرضة لمشاكل صحية متعلقة بالجهاز التنفسي . الدراسة الحالية تهدف إلى دراسة تأثير تلوث الهواء على الجهاز الرئوي في الرياضيين المعرضين لمثل هذا التلوث .

المواد والطرق: تمت في هذه الدراسة إجراء تجارب وظائف الرئة على 20 رياضيا كانوا معرضين لدخان عوادم السيارات لقرب مكان تدريبيهم من تقاطعات مرورية , ومقارنتهم بـ 20 رياضياً مماثلين من ناحية العمر ، الجنس والمنظر الجانبي الشكلي والذين يتدربون في مناطق ريفية خالية من تلوث العربات ثم قياس وظائف الرئة بواسطة مقياس تنفسي محوسب يقيس السعة الحيوية القسرية ، وحجم الزفير القسري( FVC ) في الثانية ) FEV1 و ) FEV2 و (FCC, FEV2, FEV1) وجريان الزفير القسري (PEFR) ثم القيام بالتحليل الإحصائي بواسطة تجربة الطالب تـي ثنائي الذيل ، (مستقل Two toiled Studeut T-test) للتحاليل بين المجموعات.

النتائج : وجد أن هنالك انخفاض في الوظائف الديناميكية الرئوية للمجموعة التي تم دراستها مقارنة بالمجموعة المراقبة .

الاستنتاج : خلصت هذه دراسة أن هناك تأثيراً واضحاً للتلوث الناجم عن عوادم السيارات على وظائف الرئوية عند الرياضيين المعرضين لها مقارنة بآخرين في منطقة خالية نسبيا من التلوث أظهرت النتائج أيضاً أن هنالك انخفاضاً واضحاً في جميع مؤشرات وظائف الرئة في المجموعة المدروسة مقارنة بمجموعة المراقبة.


Keywords: Air pollution, automobile exhaust, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FVC, pulmonary function tests, PEFR FEF 25-75% , sportsmen


How to cite this article:
Pakkala A, Raghavendra T, Ganashree C P. A study of the effect of automobile pollution on pulmonary function tests of exposed Sportsmen. Saudi J Sports Med 2013;13:87-9

How to cite this URL:
Pakkala A, Raghavendra T, Ganashree C P. A study of the effect of automobile pollution on pulmonary function tests of exposed Sportsmen. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2013 [cited 2021 Dec 2];13:87-9. Available from: https://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2013/13/2/87/123384


  Introduction Top


Urbanization is associated with an enormous increase in vehicular traffic emitting exhausts and polluting the atmosphere. Airborne dust plays a major part in the overall atmospheric pollution and motor vehicle emissions constitute the most significant source of ultra-particle in an urban environment. Traffic related air pollution is an occupational health hazard to individuals with a work environment close to traffic. Sportsmen who practice near grounds located in the vicinity of traffic junctions through, which the maximum number of vehicles passes are more prone to develop health issues pertaining to the respiratory system.

In view of the inherent reserve capacity of the respiratory system as well as the adaptive effect of exercise, it is interesting to know the effect of air pollution in trained athletes. [1] When inhaled air pollutants cause damage to the airways and lungs, the prevalence of obstructive, restrictive, and mixed type of functional impairment of the respiratory system has been found to have a direct relationship with the dust concentration and duration of exposure. [2]

Fuel combustion is the primary source of a large number of health damaging pollutants. Most components of vehicular exhaust are oxidant in nature and are highly reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS are free radicals that cause injury in tissues through membrane damaging processes leading to cell dysfunctions. Although, these pollutants may interact with other organ systems, their most obvious effects are in lungs because lungs present the largest exposed surface to the atmosphere. [3],[4],[5]

The present study intends to study the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary system in sportsmen exposed to automobile exhaust.


  Materials and Methods Top


The present study intends to study the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary system in sportsmen exposed to automobile exhaust.

This study was conducted by performing pulmonary function tests (PFT) on 20 sportsmen who are exposed to automobile exhaust by virtue of their practicing venue nearer to traffic junctions and comparing them with 20 other age, gender matched and similar anthropometric profile sportsmen who practice in a rural setting free from vehicular air pollution.

Informed consent was obtained from all subjects who were willing to participate in the study.

Ethical clearance was obtained from institutional ethical committee of PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam.

Inclusion criteria

Healthy male sportspersons who are non-smokers in the age group of 20-30 years who practice at grounds nearer to traffic junctions for more than 1 year are included in the study.

Healthy male sportspersons who are non-smokers in the age group of 20-30 years who practice at grounds at rural areas free from motor vehicular traffic for more than 1 year are included in the control group.

Exclusion criteria

Any evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, musculoskeletal abnormality, heart disease, anemia, obesity and smokers. History of cardiovascular disease, diabetes or hypertension.

The anthropometric data was measured in all subjects. PFT by computerized spirometer measuring FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, PEFR and FEF 25-75% were measured.

The subjects were explained about the detailed procedure of computerized spirometry and the actual purpose of the recordings before advising them to rest. PFT measurements were done using the equipment from FIM Company with a minimum of 3 readings on each occasion at 15 min interval and maximum performed values were taken.

Statistical analysis was carried out by student t-test (two tailed, independent) for inter group analysis.


  Results Top


There is no statistically significant difference in anthropometric parameters. All dynamic lung function parameters studied were significantly lower in the study group.


  Discussion Top


The present study intends to study the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary system in sportsmen exposed to automobile exhaust.

PFT by computerized spirometer measuring FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, PEFR and FEF 25-75% were measured. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed. [Table 1] shows the anthropometric parameters of all the subjects in the two groups. It is observed that there is no statistically significant difference with respect to all the parameters measured in both groups.
Table 1: Anthropometric parameters in the study and control groups

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[Table 2] shows the comparison of PFT in the study and control group. It can be seen that there is a decline in dynamic pulmonary function parameters in the study group when compared to controls which is statistically significant.
Table 2: Comparison of PFT in the study and control groups

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Diesel exhaust particle organic extracts induce ROS in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, two key cell types targeted by particulate matter in the lung. ROS activate the promoters of cytokines and chemokines involved in allergic inflammation through activator protein-1 and nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways. Organic diesel exhaust particles also induce apoptosis and necrosis in bronchial epithelial cells via a mitochondrial pathway. [3],[5]

Most of the immune responses responsible for allergic inflammation are due to an enhanced production of immunoglobulin E due poly aromatic hydrocarbons in vehicular emissions. [6] This could be the reason for the decline in FVC, FEV 1 , PEFR in sportsmen exposed to automobile exhausts.

There is a significant decrease in FEV 1 /FVC in the study group as compared to controls suggesting an obstructive type of abnormality.

FEF 25-75% indicates flow rates in small airways of less than 2 mm diameter. There is a significant decrease in this parameter in the study group indicating greater involvement of smaller airways. Particles generated from diesel exhaust are extremely small and are present in the nuclei or accumulation modes, diameters of 0.02 nm and 0.2 nm respectively. These small sized particles by virtue of their greater surface area to mass ratio can carry a much larger fraction of toxic compounds, such as hydrocarbons or metals on their surface. Hence chronic exposure to them can lead to chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract and lung parenchyma. [7],[8]


  Conclusion Top


This was a comparative study to demonstrate the effect of air pollution due to automobile exhaust on pulmonary functions of sportsmen exposed to a polluted urban environment with a similar group in the rural relatively pollution free environment.

PFT by computerized spirometer measuring FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, PEFR and FEF 25-75% were measured. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed.

It was found that there is a significant decline in various PFT parameters recorded in the study group as compared to the control group.

 
  References Top

1.Pakkala A. Adaptability in nature-Are lungs mouldable? Indian J Physiother Occup Ther 2010;4:17-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Jafary ZA, Faridi IA, Qureshi HJ. Effects of airborne dust on lung functions of exposed subjects. Pak J Physiol 2007;3:30-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Dickson RP, Schwartz DA. Acute and chronic responses to toxic inhalations. In: Fishman AP, Elias ZA, Fishman JA, Grippi MA, Senior RM, Pack AI, editors. Fishman′s Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders. 4 th ed. China: Mc Graw Hill Companies; 2008. p. 995-1002.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Huisingh JL, Bradow R, Jungers R. Application of bioassay to the characterisation of diesel emission particle. In: Waters MD, Nesnow S, Huisingh JI, editors. Application of Short Term Bioassays in the Fractionation and Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures. New York: Pienum Press; 1978. p. 381-418.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Nel AE, Diaz-Sanchez D, Li N. The role of particulate pollutants in pulmonary inflammation and asthma: Evidence for the involvement of organic chemicals and oxidative stress. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2001;7:20-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Polosa R, Salvi S, Di Maria GU. Allergic susceptibility associated with diesel exhaust particle exposure: Clear as mud. Arch Environ Health 2002;57:188-93.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Singhal M, Khaliq F, Singhal S, Tandon OP. Pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers: A preliminary study. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2007;51:244-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Levsen K. The analysis of diesel particulate. Fresenius Z Anal Chem 1988;331:467-78.  Back to cited text no. 8
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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Materials and Me...
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