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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 97-103

Acute effect of different stretching techniques on kinematic and physical performance variables in female volleyball players of Punjab, India

1 Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India
2 Amity Institute of Physiotherapy (AIPT), Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication16-Oct-2018

Correspondence Address:
Shweta Shenoy
Faculty of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-6308.243351

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Purpose: The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of different stretching techniques (static and dynamic) on kinematic and physical performance variables in female volleyball players of Punjab.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-six state-level female volleyball players were divided using random lottery method into three groups: static stretching (n = 12), dynamic stretching (n = 12), and control group (n = 12). Static stretching and dynamic stretching groups performed different stretching techniques, and control group performed no exercises. Testing of kinematic and physical performance variables was done before and after stretching and control sessions. Duration of stretching and control session was 7 min each for all three groups.
Result: Average relative power and balance were significantly improved with both stretching techniques. On comparing the three groups post hoc analysis, average relative power, static balance, and sprint time found to be significantly improved (P < 0.05) in dynamic stretching group, whereas static stretching group showed increase in sprint time (P < 0.05). Further, in post hoc analysis, no other measured kinematic and physical performance variables showed significant difference in the three groups.
Conclusion: Dynamic stretching may be preferable to static stretching as part of a warm-up designed to prepare for physical activity.

  Abstract in Arabic 

الأثر الحاد لتقنيات الشد المختلفة على الحركة والاداء الجسماني للاعبات كرة اليد في البنجاب, الهند

الغرض: هدفت الدراسة إلى التحقق من فاعلية التقنيات المختلفة للشد ) الثابت والمتحرك (على الحركة والأداء الجسماني المختلف في لاعبات كرة اليد

في البنجاب.

،)n= المواد والوسائل: تمّ تقسيم 36 من لاعبات كرة اليد على مستوى الدولة عشوائياً بطريقة القرعة إلى ثلاث مجموعات: الشد الثابت ) 12

مجموعتي الشد الثابت والمتحرك أدت تمارين شد متنوعة والمجموعة الضابطة لم تؤدِ أي تمارين. .)n= ومجموعة ضايطة ) 12 ،)n= المتحرك) 12

و قد تمّ إجراء اختبار الحركة والأداء الجسماني قبل وبعد الشد والتمارين الضابطة. و قد كانت فترة الشد والمجموعة الضابطة لمدة سبع دقائق لكل


النتائج: أظهرت النتائج تحسن معدل القوة النسبي والتوازن بشكل ملحوظ لكل تقنيات الشد. مقارنة بالمجموعات الثلاث بعد تحليل العرقوب, متوسط

القوة النسبي, التوازن الثابت, وجد ان زمن السباق تحسن بشكل بارز

في قروب الشد المتحرك, أظهرت مجموعة الشد الثابت )P<0.05(

أبعد من ذلك أنه بعد تحليل العرقوب .)P< زيادة في زمن السباق ) 0.05

لم يكن هناك أي قياسات تظهر اختلافاً في الأداء الحركي والجسماني في

المجموعات الثلاث.

الخلاصة: الشد المتحرك قد يكون مفضلاً على الشد الثابت كجزء من

الإحماء المناسب للتحضير للنشاط البدني.

Keywords: Balance, jump performance, kinematic parameters, sprint time, volleyball

How to cite this article:
Shenoy S, Khandekar P, Chawla JK. Acute effect of different stretching techniques on kinematic and physical performance variables in female volleyball players of Punjab, India. Saudi J Sports Med 2018;18:97-103

How to cite this URL:
Shenoy S, Khandekar P, Chawla JK. Acute effect of different stretching techniques on kinematic and physical performance variables in female volleyball players of Punjab, India. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2021 Jun 15];18:97-103. Available from: https://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2018/18/2/97/243351

  Introduction Top

Stretching exercises form an important constituent of warm-up sessions to enhance the flexibility.[1] They help attain maximal power, agility, and coordination. They also increase joint range of motion by increasing muscle temperature and by performing kinetic patterns that mimic movements of the sport.[2],[3] Volleyball players have both high leg muscle power and flexibility to perform explosive and wide movements and to avoid injuries during training and competition.[2],[4] Literature suggests that the use of stretching in the form of static and dynamic variations may improve performance and reduce the risk of injuries and delay the onset muscle soreness, therefore facilitating early rehabilitation (Knudson et al., 2001; Malliaropoulos et al., 2004; Witvrouw et al., 2007).[5],[6],[7] The traditional and most common type of stretching is static stretching which involves holding a position while dynamic stretching involves moving parts of your body and gradually increasing reach and speed of movement or both (Shaji and Isha 2009).[8] Static stretching improves compliance of musculotendinous unit which is important for explosive performance.[9] Static bout of stretching is commonly followed by a segment of skill rehearsal where the players would perform dynamic stretching movements (Young and Behm 2002).[1] However, there has been evidence which suggests that static stretching could have a negative impact on a subsequent performance (Avela et al., 2004; Behm et al., 2001; Cramer et al., 2005; Evetovich et al., 2003; Fowles et al., 2000).[10],[11],[12],[13],[14] Dynamic stretching would be expected to be superior to static stretching due to the closer similarity to movements that occur during subsequent exercises (Torres et al., 2008)[15] and improve explosive performance[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23] (Amiri-Khorasani et al., 2013; Fletcher and Jones, 2004; Gelen, 2011, Hilfiker et al., 2007; Hodgson et al., 2005; Kilduff et al., 2007; Kruse et al., 2013; Needham et al., 2009).

It is known that the acute effects of stretching on muscle performance produce significant effect although the parameters associated with these effects have not been fully explored.[9] Therefore, the primary aim of investigation was to evaluate the kinematic profile that female volleyball athletes exhibit during vertical jumping after static stretching and dynamic stretching, to examine the acute effects of static stretching, dynamic stretching, and no stretching methods on 20 m sprint performance in female volleyball players, and to compare the acute effects of a static stretching and dynamic stretching protocol on flexibility reaction time, agility, and balance in female volleyball players.

  Materials and Methods Top

Thirty-six state-level female volleyball players (age 20.3 ± 1.60 years, height 164.68 ± 6.26 cm, weight 51.95 ± 5.45 kg), having minimum 2 years of experience, were randomly recruited using lottery method for this investigation. The procedures were explained to participants and they read and signed the informed consent form. This investigation and all protocols utilized were approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar. It was ensured that the participants were state-level volleyball players in the age limit of 18–25 years, with no existing musculoskeletal problems of lower limb such as fracture, sprain, or strain. They had no recent lower extremity orthopedic injuries sustained within the last 6 months and had no existing medical problems. At the time of experimental testing, participants also participated in regular strength training and plyometric training, volleyball drills, and weekend competitions, under the supervision of strength and conditioning coaches. Frequency and duration of participation varied from 2 to 5 days per week and 50–60 min per se ssion. To prevent any potential diurnal variation in performance measures, participants were asked to report to the laboratory at approximately the same time for every session.

Experimental design

The participants of the study were randomly divided into three groups: control group (Group A, n = 12), static stretching group (Group B, n = 12), and dynamic stretching group (Group C, n = 12). Group A served as a control while Group B and Group C performed static and dynamic stretching exercises, respectively, for 7 min. Kinematic performance parameters of jump, reaction time, and balance were assessed using kinematic measurement system (KMSMAN Win Version 2003). Sprint time was assessed using 20 m sprint test. Agility was assessed with Illinois agility test and flexibility was assessed using sit and reach test. Pre- and post-intervention values were taken in their respective groups.

Exercise protocol – for 7 min

Participants of Group A did not receive any exercise; instead, they took rest for 7 min after preintervention values were calculated. Group B and Group C received static and dynamic stretching exercises, respectively, which are described in [Table 1].
Table 1: Description of static dynamic stretching procedures

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Statistical analysis

Student's paired t-test was used within the groups to compare mean ± standard deviation, for all the parameters at baseline and at the end of 7 min for all the three groups after intervention. Differences between the groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical difference was further analyzed by post hoc analysis using Turkey's honestly significant difference method. SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 17.0 statistical software (IBM) was used for data analysis. In this study, P < 0.05 has been considered statistically significant.

  Result Top

[Table 2] describes the demographic characteristics of the volleyball players. A total of 36 participants were recruited and all of participants completed the study. Mean values of ages (years) of the three groups (Groups A, B, and C) were 20.17 ± 1.9, 20.31 ± 1.2, and 20.42 ± 1.7; mean heights (cm) were 164.49 ± 8.6, 162.48 ± 6.5, and 167.08 ± 3.6; mean weights (kg) were 51.05 ± 4.0, 51.31 ± 6.6, and 53.5 ± 5.8; and mean body mass indexes were 19.08 ± 1.6, 19.55 ± 1.7, and 19.26 ± 1.5, respectively. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between all three groups. [Table 3] describes pre- and post-intervention changes in kinematic and physical performance variables among all the three groups.
Table 2: Demographic data of study group

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Table 3: Pre- and post-intervention changes in kinematic and physical performance variables of control group, static stretching group, and dynamic stretching group

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Within-group comparison showed that average relative power, flexibility, sprint time, and number of contacts (balance) found to be significant in both, static, as well as in dynamic stretching groups (P < 0.05). Dynamic stretching showed significant improvement (P < 0.05) in average absolute power, contact time, flight:contact ratio, and first average step time in within-group comparison, whereas nonsignificant differences were found in static stretching group for these parameters.

On multiple comparisons at baseline using ANOVA, average relative power, 20 m sprint time, and number of contacts found to be significant (P < 0.05). Nonsignificant differences were found in ANOVA for all the other variables.

Post hoc test for intergroup comparison revealed significant improvement in Group C, followed by Group B, but no improvement was found in Group A for average relative power, sprint time, and balance. It has been found that the comparisons in between Groups A and B, A and C, and B and C for other parameters are not significant.

  Discussion Top

The current study was designed to examine the effectiveness of different stretching techniques (static and dynamic) on kinematic and physical performance variables in female volleyball players of Punjab. Previous studies[24],[25] (Pagaduan et al., 2012; Davis 2011) have largely focused on the physical fitness aspects of male players, but little attention is paid on performance of female volleyball players. To date, there are only a few studies on female volleyball players and none on acute effect of stretching on kinematic and physical performance variables. There are basic gender differences in jumping and landing techniques, and the impact forces are less in females while jumping and sprinting activities (Walsh et al., 2007).[26] This is the first study that has investigated these changes in female volleyball players after using different stretching techniques in female volleyball players.

Dynamic stretching increases potentiation of vertical jump performance (Turki et al., 2011).[27] To increase jumping performance, focus must be given to the variable of power which is one of the important components of physical fitness and is associated with explosive movements such as sprinting and jumping. We calculated average absolute power which showed significant improvement with dynamic stretching, whereas no significant changes were shown with static stretching and rest. It may be related to increased explosive force production by facilitating neuromuscular function through dynamic stretching. Females have been shown to exhibit a more compliant musculotendinous unit than males, so more force can be stored during eccentric contraction of muscles which produces greater rate of force development during concentric explosive contraction while dynamic stretching activities.[28] This may also be the reason for improvement in force and power production with dynamic stretching.

Another parameter, average relative power of jumping also showed significant improvement with dynamic stretching as compared to static stretching, which may be attributed to improved biomechanical force distribution per unit mass in dynamic stretching group because of the closer similarity of movements with their sporting activity than the static stretching group. However, on multiple comparisons, only average relative power was significantly improved among all tested variables of power.

It is important to estimate flight time which is used to assess jump height. There is evidence that suggested that take-off and landing position affect flight time and so jump height varies accordingly (Newton, 2013).[29] The current investigation showed that only contact time and flight-contact ratio were significant after dynamic stretching compared to other measured parameters. This may be attributed to interrelation of flight time and contact time to the jump height; the results showed that no significant differences were found within-group as well as in intergroup comparison of jump height. It is possible that the magnitude of effect was “diluted” by a fatigue effect of the 7 min exercise protocol. These results were inconsistent with the findings of Beydokhti and Haghshenas (2012),[30] who showed significant increase of jump height with dynamic stretching.

Some other kinematic parameters were also assessed in our study, in which reaction time was significantly improved after dynamic stretching only. On the basis of results, it is presented that physical performance of balance was improved, when stretching is done, more than that of no stretching. Balance is improved more when athletes perform dynamic stretching than when athletes perform static stretching. In the case of physical performance, variables as the participants who were selected for the study belonged to athletic population, so they also continued their daily warm-up routine apart from the experimental exercises. It may be the reason of no significant differences in flexibility found in three groups. However, flexibility was improved after static stretching as well as dynamic stretching exercises independently within the group. These results were consistent with Woolstenhulme et al. (2006),[31] whose research showed that static stretching and sport specific ballistic stretching were equally effective at increasing flexibility. However, the results are not consistent with those of Samson et al.,[32] who suggest that the static stretching protocol resulted in a greater sit and reach score than dynamic stretching. This can be attributed to no difference in the total durations of stretching in both protocols, which were limited to 7 min in our study. In relation to other physical performance variables, agility showed no significant changes with static stretching and dynamic stretching, whereas intergroup comparison also showed no significant differences between the three groups in our study. Results of our study were consistent with a similar study conducted by Faigenbaum et al. (2006),[33] Little and Williams,[22] in which researchers examined the acute effects of pre-event static stretching, dynamic exercise, and static stretching and dynamic exercise. There was no significant difference noted in the agility performance after the three different warm-up protocols used in our study, which is not in accordance with those of Van Gelder and Bartz (2011)[34] and McMillian et al. (2006),[35] who explained that dynamic stretching significantly improves the performance compared to static stretching condition. The findings may be attributed to the lack of significant differences to the recovery interval between stretching and testing.

In the present study, 20 m sprint performance results show that dynamic stretching is more beneficial, whereas static stretching and no stretching caused detrimental effects on 20 m sprint performance. The results are in accordance with the findings from the study done by Alikhajeh,[25] in which there was a significantly faster sprint time when active dynamic stretching was incorporated into a warm-up, whereas significantly slower sprint times observed for subjects employing either static active or passive stretching regimens also in Cornwell et al. (2001) and Young and Behm (2003).[1],[36] This may be attributable to acute neural inhibition from passive stretching decreasing the neural drive to the muscle (Rosenbaum and Hennig 1995; Avela et al., 1999; Kubo et al., 2001).[37],[38],[39] Thus, it appears that pre-performance static stretching exercises might negatively impact skills that require multiple repetitive high power outputs in addition to those that depend mainly on maximizing a single output of peak force or power.

Our study showed that dynamic stretching could be of greater use than static stretching as a part of regular warm-up in female volleyball players in their need of more power and speed production during jumping and sprinting activities in the competition. Our interventions proved that flexibility will increase if female volleyball players performed dynamic stretching exercises. Females have more compliant musculotendinous unit which reduces chances of injury while stretching in females than in males. For this reason, we selected females as our study group. Our study was powered with establishing the significant relationship between positive effects of dynamic stretching on static balance, which was lacking in the previous studies.[40],[41],[42]

The current study also had some limitations. First, the participants who were selected for the study were only females. Acute effect of stretching cannot be generalized to the whole population of volleyball players. Second, pre- and post-testing of one parameter were done on the same date, so fatigue factor was neglected during the testing and so further researches are needed in this field. The participants were also undergoing some other regular warm-up and training sessions as well during the period of evaluation, so we cannot be sure that the effects shown in various outcomes are solely because of our intervention strategies.

  Conclusion Top

The results from the current study are encouraging and demonstrate the beneficial effects of dynamic stretching on kinematic and physical performance. Hence, dynamic stretching exercises should be incorporated in warm-up sessions, but static stretching should be incorporated cautiously. In addition, our results support that improvements in jump performance, sprint performance, and balance can occur with dynamic stretching strategies integrated with the warm-up program.

Practical applications

Dynamic stretching during warm-ups, as opposed to static stretching or no stretching, is probably most effective as preparation for performances required in sports such as volleyball. If static stretching is used, it minimizes the risk of injury and improves physical performance.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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