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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 59-63

Impact of recreational games in enhancing the quality of life of elderly adult tribals


1 Post Graduate Government Institute for Physical Education, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Vinaya Bhavana, Visva-Bharati (Central University), Santiniketan, West Bengal, India

Date of Submission26-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance25-Jul-2021
Date of Web Publication02-Oct-2021

Correspondence Address:
Gopal Chandra Saha
Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Vinaya Bhavana, Visva-Bharati (Central University), Santiniketan, West Bengal
India
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DOI: 10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_17_21

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  Abstract 


Background: Today, making use of recreation has bowed into a lifestyle. Individuals make use of various recreational activities in different areas and places. Recreation not only provides joy and pleasure but also improves physical, mental, and emotional health. It also helps in developing self-realization, social adjustment, social equality, and good citizenship. High level of association among the people in recreational activities is like taking a little break from every day which includes a lot of fun and vision, which can be an effective strategy to a sense of relaxation and stress reduction is experienced.
Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of recreational games on quality of life in elderly adult tribal women.
Materials and Methods: Twenty elderly adult sedentary tribal women participants were selected using random sampling technique, aged between 50 to 55 years old. The experimental group (n = 20) was introduced to recreational games intervention program, for the period of 16 weeks, each session for a duration of approximately 45 min was given thrice in alternative days in a week. The quality of life was measured by a Standardized Life Satisfaction Scale developed by Hardeo Ojha and Self-efficacy Scale developed by A. K Singh and Shruti Narayan.
Results: Quantitative data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance. After participation in the 16 weeks' recreational games intervention program, the experimental group presented significant improvement in life satisfaction from score 54.15 to 54.60 (C.D = 0.45, P < 0.05) and in self-efficacy from score 77.95 to score 78.40 (C.D = 0.45, P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The results revealed that engagement in recreational games has a significant impact on life satisfaction and self-efficacy of elderly adult tribal women. Sportive recreational games have rapidly enhanced the quality of life, for example, life satisfaction and self-efficacy of individuals in physical and mental health.

Keywords: Life satisfaction, recreation games, self-efficacy, tribal women


How to cite this article:
Murmu MK, Saha GC. Impact of recreational games in enhancing the quality of life of elderly adult tribals. Saudi J Sports Med 2021;21:59-63

How to cite this URL:
Murmu MK, Saha GC. Impact of recreational games in enhancing the quality of life of elderly adult tribals. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 8];21:59-63. Available from: https://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2021/21/2/59/327486






  Introduction Top


Recreation through games and sports helps to develop human qualities as daring, honesty, serenity, patience, and justice. All elementary desires can be fulfilled through involvement in the sphere of recreational activities. Some of the satisfactions which citizens gain through recreation are “joy of creation, association, exploration, a sense of triumph, physical well being, use of mental supremacy, emotional experience, enjoyment of splendor and a sense of service and relaxation.”[1] Recreation not only provides joy and happiness but also improves bodily, psychological, and emotional health. It also helps in mounting self-realization, social adjustment, social equality, and good nationality. In addition to the boost in average life expectancy, the truth that persistent diseases and those that cause hassle have become more prevalent, and that the huge majority of the population has begun to nag about these diseases, has caused public to place more value on the quality of life.[2]

Today, women have to execute numerous roles as of wife, mother, homemaker, worker, and civilian. A working woman takes up a job outside the home as well as has to look after household work along with her official work. This twin responsibility has overburdened wedded working women, thereby leading to multidimensional troubles.[3] Among rural women, there are supplementary divisions that hinder women's empowerment. The most noteworthy ones are education levels and caste and class divisions. Women from lower castes (the scheduled castes, other backward castes, and tribal communities) are predominantly susceptible to maternal mortality and infant mortality. They are time and again unable to access health and educational services, short of decision-making power, and face higher levels of violent behavior. Among women of lower caste and class, some level of education has shown to have an affirmative impact on women's empowerment indicators.

A problem-solving, people-oriented, nuanced, and holistic approach is required if the pursuit of protection is to have significance in the everyday lives of common women and men.[4] Life satisfaction is also strongly related to one's personality[5],[6] and especially to one's sense of personal proficiency.[7] People have voluntary control over their feelings and actions so they can focus only on positive beliefs or even they have the potential to uncover the positive in the negative, thus through positive reassessment they can progress their well-being. There are observed facts which have discovered that positive and negative experiences have a causal influence on satisfaction judgments.[8] On the one hand, various factors such as education, family life, personality, genetics, economical condition and social relations can affect life satisfaction and in the other hand, spiritual wellness results in the development of hope, optimism, confidence, respect for self and others, meaning, and purpose in life.[9]] We could expect that within a given society there will be variations in the factors determining life satisfaction, for example, among people living within different kinds of subcultures.[10] Very little research has been done on recreational games, and hence, the researcher fined it significant to work on the title entitled “Impact of Recreational Games in enhancing the Quality of Life of elderly adult tribals.”

The purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of recreational games in enhancing the quality of life of elderly adult tribals.


  Materials and Methods Top


Participants

To accomplish the purpose of the study, twenty (n = 20) elderly adult tribal women within the age level of 50 years to 55 years were selected at random from Khatra subdivision under Bankura district of West Bengal, India. There was not much variation in their socioeconomic condition. All the subjects were healthy women who had no previous experience of recreational games training. All subjects were fully informed about the nature of the experimental methodology and the subjects have given their approval to play a part in this investigation. The involvement in this was conducted on a voluntary basis and all subjects actively participated throughout the training session with enjoyment. In total, 20 participants in the experimental group completed the 4-month intervention period and posttesting and were finally included in the analysis. There were not found any dropouts due to personal reasons or injuries.

The independent variable such as the selected recreational games training program was assigned as a treatment to the experimental group. The duration of the experimental period was 16 weeks excluding the days required for initial, during (after 8 weeks), and final test (after 16 weeks). Therefore, the experimental design adopted for the study was a single-group repeated measure design.

Components of the intervention program

Recreational games were planned with the help of experts in recreation activities and the subjects were monitored by an experienced physical education teacher and the researcher himself to ensure that the participants would be active, taking into account factors of safety and security throughout the period doing activities at a low to moderate for maintaining progressive of load. Active participation in recreational games promotes overall fitness because it involves the muscles in your body as well as improves your mental health. This can help build endurance, strength, coordination, flexibility, and balance. Some selected recreational games (including walking relay, ball roll relay, snatch ball, move down or up, all up relay, waist catch, arm roll relay, target pass, tunnel ball relay, and ball bounce relay) were considered as the component of the treatment for this study which was introduced to the experimental group (n=20) for the period of sixteen weeks and doing activities at a low to moderate for maintaining progression of load. The treatment (Recreation games) was given thrice (Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday) in a week in an afternoon session for a duration of approximately 45 min followed by progression of load and degree of difficulty. The session included warm-up for 4–5 min and cooling down 3–4 min. The performances of the entire subject were obtained by testing them for the dependent variables, i.e., life satisfaction and self-efficacy. The scoring of data of each test item was recorded. The three sets of data were collected at the beginning of the experiment, during the experiment (after 8 weeks), and after completion of 16 weeks' experiment on the same subject, respectively.

Measurements

In relevance of the present study, the dependent psychological variables, for example, life satisfaction and self-efficacy, were selected. The Standardized Life Satisfaction Scale developed by Ojha[11] was used to measure life satisfaction. The test consists of twenty statements. It is based on Likert's method and each statement has five responses with values. Self-efficacy Scale developed by Singh and Narain[12] was used to measure self-efficacy. The test consists of twenty statements. It is based on Likert's method and each statement has five responses with values. The questionnaire was given to all the subjects to measure life satisfaction and self-efficacy. The scoring of data of each test item was recorded. The three set of data were collected at the beginning of the experiment, during the experiment (after eight weeks) and after completion of sixteen weeks of the recreational games intervention program on the same subject respectively.

Statistical analysis

The data collected from the subjects before, during, and after the experimental period of recreational games intervention program were statistically analyzed for significant improvement by repeated measure analysis of variance. The least significant difference test was followed as a post hoc test to determine which of the paired means difference was significant. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows 10, version 26.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, N.Y., USA), at a 0.05 level of significance.


  Results Top


The demographics of the participants including age, weight and height were addressed using Excel Data Sheet, which was interpreted in [Table 1]. The mean age, weight and height of subjects were 52.4 ± 2.48 years, 46.18 ± 2.63 kg and 151.46 ± 3.04 cm respectively.
Table 1: General characteristics of the participants (n=20)

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The pre, mid, and posttest scores of the psychological variables, namely life satisfaction and self-efficacy, were recorded based on the questionnaire and the obtained scores subjected to statistical treatment.

From the results of the study [Table 2], it can be inferred that the obtained F value of elderly adult tribal women on life satisfaction (8.34) and self-efficacy (6.48) was greater than the required F value of 3.20 to be significant at 0.05 level. This proved that there was a significant difference among the training phases means on life satisfaction and self-efficacy due to the exposure of recreational games intervention program on the elderly adult tribal women.

To determine which of the paired means had a significant difference, least significant difference test was applied as post hoc test and the results are presented in [Table 3].
Table 2: Computation of repeated measures analysis of variance on life satisfaction and self-efficacy of elderly adult tribal women in different phases due to the impact of recreational games

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Table 3: Post hoc least significant difference test for the differences between the three phases paired means on life satisfaction and self-efficacy of elderly adult tribal women in different phases due to the impact of recreational games

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Table 3 shows that the mean difference on the variables life satisfaction in pre phase and during phase, in pre phase and post phase, and in during phase and post phase means and also the variable self-efficacy in pre phase and during phase, pre phase and post phase, and during phase and post phase means are 0.20, 0.45, and 0.25 and 0.25, 0.45, and 0.20, respectively, and they are greater than the confidence interval value of the variable of life satisfaction and self-efficacy, i.e., 0.35 and 0.40, respectively, which shows significant differences at 0.05 level of confidence.

This proved that there was a significant difference among the means, thereby showing a noteworthy improvement in life satisfaction and self-efficacy due to the implementation of recreational games intervention program on the elderly adult tribal women. The result of this study on life satisfaction and self-efficacy was presented through a bar diagram for better understanding [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Graphical representation of mean scores of life satisfaction and self-efficacy of participants (n=20) in different phases of training period

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  Discussion Top


The participants who were exposed to the recreational games help improve physical well-being, emotional health, and cognitive functioning. These energetic and inspiring games were ideal for them to refocus the task that was spread which also developed opportunities to mingle with peers. In broad spectrum, it can be said that there are many factors that contribute to an active lifestyle. It can be physiological, psychological, sociocultural, or environmental.[13] It has been seen that individuals tend to engage in activities for which they believe competent or have elevated self-efficacy and avoid those in which they do not.[14] It may be due to efficacy beliefs which influence the intensity of efforts of people in activity and their quality of persistence on the activity during difficult situations. High level of involvement among the people in recreational activities is like taking a little vacation from every day which includes a lot of fun and creativity, which can be a useful strategy to a sense of relaxation and stress reduction is experienced. Acquiring innovative skills can offer a feeling of enlarged self-esteem, management of emotions, and social relations leading to better support between all levels of people, which could be achieved by developing psycho-social skills through the intervention of recreational games. Life satisfaction includes the capacity for enjoyment. The more we can enjoy what we have, the happier we are. A person having high life satisfaction is expected to have higher adjustment with life. It is a state of feeling pleasure in an organism, which is ultimate goal that human beings are thriving to achieve in entire lives. Life Satisfaction generally implies the pleasure that a person gets from life.[15] Emotional benefits also include the consciousness that there are feelings of pleasure as our sense of self improves. The level of one's life pleasure is strongly reliant on factors such as economic well-being, social equality, and political freedom in one's societal environment.[6] Any form of physical activity is indispensable to achieve optimal physical and mental health and building social associations with others is a vital part of maintaining good well-being. We gain a sense of accomplishment as there are still goals to be set and achieved in life. Self-efficacy is an important factor in assessing or predicting physical activity. Self-efficacy is the faith in one's own skill to learn or perform a sport or physical activity at a certain stage.[16]

We are living in a collectivist ethnicity which may breed a sense of empathy in its members through exhibiting prosocial behaviors.[17],[18] Socialization may be one of the most pleasurable aspects of just adding these modified games to the lifestyle of individuals which would demonstrate a significant increase in generating keenness to carry out a collective mission that leads them to work on their group dynamics. Social segregation is decreased and thoughts of isolation are alleviated. Having an optimistic understanding to predict is similarly as pleasurable as the activity itself. As for life satisfaction and leisure satisfaction, researchers[19],[20] found a significant association between life satisfaction and leisure satisfaction. Researchers also[21],[22],[23] reported that there was a positive linear relationship between these two satisfactions. A study limitation may be the lack of objectively measured nutritional control in intervention group. Participants were asked to continue their regular diet and to avoid any other physical activity programs. This might have affected the training effect on some psychological factors. This study had also limitations based on the small sample used to process the data.


  Conclusion Top


Overall, the present study found that participation in sports recreation games influenced the physical activity of elderly adult tribal women. Making several improvements to existing recreational games may promote physically active and improve their quality of life. Considering this situation, sportive recreational games have rapidly enhanced quality of life, for example, life satisfaction and self-efficacy of individuals in health. It is recommended that the same research with a larger sample size may determine a better and precise outlook on the population and provide precise exercise parameters.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Jadavpur University (India) for contribution to the identification of information sources and database search.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflict of interests

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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