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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2020
Volume 20 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 31-58

Online since Wednesday, January 20, 2021

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Efficacy of physical therapy intervention in sports-related concussion among young individuals age-group – A narrative review p. 31
Mousa Mohammed Jabali, Anas Mohammed Alhakami, Mohammed Ahmed Qasheesh, Shadab Uddin
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_33_20  
Concussion has always been described as a suddenly and unexpectedly inflicted transitory functional brain illness and implicated as a diverse pathophysiological mechanism. A thread of mild traumatic brain injury is a concussion that are normally “self-limited and at the less-severe end of the brain injury spectrum.” Various studies have covered sport-related concussions in young athletes. Approximately 75% of these injuries occur at secondary school and college level with higher predilection among females, especially in soccer. Risk factors for concussion are male gender, high body mass index, and some sports, for example, American football. Consequentially, it may lead to diverse somatic, cognitive, and emotional signs and symptoms including memory disturbances, mental confusion, and difficulty concentrating. Disparate physical therapy evaluation methods and interventional strategies are being employed in this context to achieve the therapeutic goal. Any article concerning concussion injury and associated physical therapy among young individuals age group concerning football is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to focus on concussions in young football players, who have the highest chance of being injured or reinjured after returning to play.
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The influence of athletic taping and bracing on ankle sprain: A literature review p. 36
Ali Altaweel, Majed A Alabbad
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_15_20  
Ankle sprain is a common injury in sports, and it is considered one of the most body parts injured in athletes. An inversion ankle sprain is the most common type of ankle sprains injuries and constitutes 45% of sports injuries with a high recurrence level that could approximately affect 73% of athletes. This literature review is aimed to highlight the influence of the athletic taping and bracing on the athletic ankle sprains. Literature search was carried out using PubMed, SIMMON, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Athletic taping and bracing have been used for athletes with the purpose of injury prevention and as treatment during sporting activities. However, some studies showed ankle sprain injury reduction significantly up to half of the injury rate while using athletic tape. Furthermore, wearing the brace significantly lowers the injury rate of 1.6 sprains/1000 exposure comparing to 5.2 sprains/1000 exposure to those who did not wear the brace. Finally, athletic taping and bracing are common modalities used in practice. There is a lot of confounding factors and doubt in the literature regarding the influence of these modalities on the incidence and severity of injurers.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Kinesiophobia in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patient: A questionnaire‑based study p. 40
Naif Alhamam, Fatimah Mustafa ALthabit, Arwa Hussain AlOnayzan, Zahrah Ahmed AlAbdullah, Khadijah Mustafa Alali
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_31_20  
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of kinesiophobia in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to reach a successful outcome in rehabilitation strategies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Ahsa Region, Saudi Arabia, in the period between 2019 and 2020. One hundred and thirty-five post-ACL reconstruction patients participated in this study. They were asked to fill out the Arabic version of the Kinesiophobia' Tampa scale to assess their fear of movement post-ACL. Categorical variables were displayed as numbers and percentages, while we used mean (+, _−) standard deviation, and median for continuous variable. Data were analyzed using Mann–Whitney U-test, and the Shapiro–Wilk test at a level of significant P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of kinesiophobia after ACL reconstruction was very high. According to the Tampa scale, about 77% of patients had a high score of kinesiophobia, and 31% had low scores of kinesiophobia. Age, gender, marital status, and occupational status did not show any significant role in the level of kinesiophobia. Conclusion: Kinesiophobia prevalence was very high after ACL reconstruction. Furthermore, more studies are needed to adjust the rehabilitation and physiotherapy postoperation.
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Outcome of rotator cuff repair surgery: A local study p. 44
Naif Al Hamam, Ali Alsakkak, Adeeb Buhlaigah, Sajjad Bosror
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_23_20  
Background: Rotator cuff disease (RCD) is one among the various contributing causes of shoulder pain and results in weakness, restricting shoulder range of motion and impacting patient's quality of live negatively. Over decades, RCD has been one of the most common encountered conditions in orthopedic clinics and treated by upper-extremity surgeons. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to identify patients diagnosed with RCD and to compare the clinical outcome of the pain score with functional impairment of shoulder pre- and post-operatively. Study Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Methods: A total of 44 patients who had undergone or would undergo surgical repair for rotator cuff (RC) tear in 6-month period were identified and enrolled in this study. Patients who refused to participate and those who had fracture in shoulder girdle were excluded from the study. Clinical evaluation of rotator cuff tear was done using a prevalidated data collection tool which is Oxford shoulder score (OSS) through structured interview in orthopedic clinic and the oss score was measured pre- and post-operatively. Results: Forty-four patients with RCD were included in this study. The mean age was 52.91 ± 7.562 years and 55.7% of them were males. OSS was applied before and after the surgery. The lower the score means the higher the level of pain and activity restriction. We found a great and significant increase in the score after the surgery (45.56) compared to the score before the surgery (11.18). Conclusion: Surgical repair of RC tear produced satisfactory clinical outcomes in reducing pain and improving the overall condition.
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Knowledge and practice of FIFA warm-up protocols among Saudi Athletes participated during the 5th Islamic Solidarity Games (Baku 2017) and its relations to events musculoskeletal injuries p. 48
Mohammed Hakami, Qassim Muaidi, Ahmad Aldukhail, Ayman Afifi, Mostfa Kofi, Azzam Al-Otaibi
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_16_20  
Background: Overall, participating in high level competition carries a high risk of injuries. Conventionally, proper warming up can decrease injury rate; however, there was no evidence based warm up protocol until 2006 when FIFA developed the warm up Program based on many randomized studies to prevent injuries. The FIFA medical research center developed FIFA 11+ Program to reduce injuries in football. The FIFA 11+S program was built according to the FIFA 11 + program and focused on preventing shoulder injuries for a goalie. The FIFA 11+ and FIFA11+S program has also been investigated in other sports and shows a significant decrease in injuries; they are a complete warm-up program with running exercises followed by specific preventive exercises focusing on core strength, balance, and agility. In this study, we assumed there is low adoption of this protocol among athletes, and there is a need to increase self-awareness of this protocol's outcomes. Methodology: Demonstrated FIFA 11+ and FIFA 11+S warm up components were shown to the athletes to assess their adherence. We also recorded the injuries among the athlete using the International Olympic Committee surveillance form for a daily report of injuries; then, we compared the adherence results and injury results using the Pearson Correlation Analysis Formula to find any association. Results: The warm up protocol data suggest low adherence giving a low percentage during the descriptive analysis of the warm up components; there was also a statistically significant correlation between the data of FIFA 11 + and the injured body part with a significant P-value of 0.037. Conclusion: Implementing FIFA 11+ and FIFA 11+ are not easy, but it is crucial giving low awareness of those exercises by athletes and its associations with injuries during the Baku 2019 Olympic Games.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Resuming international sporting events affected by coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in a bio-secure bubble p. 55
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_27_20  
The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted the entire calendar of sporting events in the year 2020. However, after a break of more than 4 months, international cricket resumed in England, followed by conduction of football and other cricketing events. The success of these events could be attributed to the "bio-secure bubble", which has ensured the safety of the players as well as the people who are involved in the organization of the event. The bio-bubble refers to the new protocol, which has been associated with a sporting event and wherein all people related to the event remains isolated from the outside world. In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted all the sporting events and there has been a sense of fear among players and organizers. The creation of bio-secure bubbles in hotels, training sessions, recreation places, transportation and matches have made it possible for the events to occur and should be strictly adhered for the safety of everyone.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Physiotherapy in COVID times: Hybrid care is the new norm p. 57
Nida Mir, Altaf Hussain, Poonam Mishra, Manish Maurya, Vijay Sharma, Sushma Sagar
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_30_20  
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