About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Reader Login
Home Print this page Email this page Users Online: 854
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Most cited articles *

  Archives   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Cited Viewed PDF
Impact of knee osteoarthritis on the quality of life among Saudi elders: A comparative study
Asma Saad Alrushud, Salwa B El-Sobkey, Ashraf Ramadan Hafez, Abdulaziz Al-Ahaideb
January-June 2013, 13(1):10-16
Background: The population sector of elders is progressively increasing, and it is estimated that it will reach almost one third of the total population in 2025. Large number of elders is suffering from knee osteoarthritis (OA) as the most prevalent rheumatic diseases worldwide. Recently there is a growing concern among researchers and health professionals regarding the impact of knee OA on elders and their quality of life (QOL). Objectives: To explore the impact of knee OA on QOL among Saudi elders aged between 60-70 years and to define which of the Short from survey (SF-36) domain (s) and which component, physical or mental, are mostly affected by this knee OA. In addition to study the presence of correlation between scores of SF-36 domains and components and the following factors; patient's age, gender, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), disease duration and severity, educational level, stability of the income source, income, housing type, housing ownership, and care giver. Subjects and Methods: This study was carried out during (December/ 2010 - March/ 2011). One hundred and twenty Saudi elders, (58, 48.3% male), aged between 60-70 years with mean± SD (64.5 ± 3.03) participated in this comparative study. Half of them had severe knee OA, as defined by knee society score (KSS), they were recruited from King Saud Medical City. The other half were without knee OA, were recruited from Prince Salman Social Center and the Saudi association for the Cooperative Retirees. Arabic version of Short Form -36 questionnaire was used to measure participants QOL domains scores as well as the overall scores of the physical and mental components of the questionnaire. Data collected were statistically treated and presented in tables. Results: Current study showed a better significant scores for Saudi elders without knee OA on all SF-36 domains (p = 0.0001). Calculating the patients' domain's scores as percentage from the maximum domain's scores which showed that, the mental health component of elders patients was more affected than physical health component and that role limitation due to emotional problems domain (RLEP) was the most affected domain (22.7%). Physical component showed positive correlation with income (r= 0.320, P= 0.013). While mental component showed negative correlation with disease duration (r = -0.341, P=0.008). Conclusion: Knee OA has negative impact on Saudi elders' QOL. Mental health component was more affected than physical health component. Consequently RLEP domain was the most affected domain. Patients' QOL was positively correlated to income and negatively correlated to disease duration.
  12 9,628 525
A morphometric study of the proximal end of the tibia in South Indian population with its clinical implications
Chandni Gupta, Jitendra Kumar, Sneha Guruprasad Kalthur, Antony Sylvan D'souza
May-August 2015, 15(2):166-169
Objective: Total knee arthroplasty and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) are frequently done procedures for the treatment of various forms of arthritis and knee injuries. The knee prosthesis, which is used for these procedures requires adequate sizing specific to the population. Hence, the aim of the present study is to measure various parameters of the proximal end of the tibia in south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Fifty (26 left and 24 right) adult fully ossified dry tibia were taken, and various parameters of the proximal end of the tibia were measured using a Vernier caliper. Statistical analysis of the parameters was done. Comparison between various parameters of right and left side was done using paired t-test. Results: In our study, the mean transverse, the anteroposterior diameter of total, medial and lateral condyles of the tibia are 6.83, 4.57, 2.73, 4.45 and 2.79, 4.07 cm. The area of medial, lateral and total tibial condyle is 12.2, 11.42 and 31.39 cm 2 . The mean length between the upper end of the tibia and tibial tuberosity and the mean circumference of the upper end of the tibia is 5.15 and 19.02 cm. Groove for ligamentum patellae was found in 100% of cases. Conclusion: The results of this study will be helpful for anatomists, anthropologists, and orthopedics in cases of UKA, complete knee arthroplasty procedures, and meniscal transplantation.
  9 6,573 288
Test-retest reliability of assessing cervical proprioception using cervical range of motion device
Ravi Shankar Reddy, Khalid A Alahmari, Paul S Silvian
May-August 2016, 16(2):118-123
Background: Cervical proprioception plays an important role in the stability and optimal functional of the cervical spine and assessment of cervical proprioception is integral in the assessment and management of cervical spine dysfunction. Cervical range of motion (CROM) device is an effective tool, simple and cost effective tool to assess cervical proprioception. The objective of the study was to establish the test-retest reliability of a CROM in assessing cervical proprioception in asymptomatic individuals. Methods: Twenty healthy adults (mean age 37±8 years) were recruited and test retest reliability of CROM device in assessing cervical proprioception was assessed. Cervico-cephalic kinaesthetic sensibility tests - Neutral Head Positioning (NHP) and Target head Positioning (THP) tests were used to assess cervical proprioception. The test retest reliability was assessed in 2 sessions each session is separated with the other by 48 hours. Results: The test-retest reliability of measurements made with the CROM was verified with ICC values for all cervical measurements ranging between 0.66 (CI: 0.1, 0.8) for Target Head Position – rotation right to 0.93 (0.8, 0.9) (CI: 0.8-0.9) for THP – Rotation right. The correlation analysis found there are high and significant correlations between the test and retest results indicating that the reliability of the test can be established (positive correlation coefficients ranging from 0.524 – 0.863). Conclusion: CROM device can be used to quantify cervical proprioception errors with acceptable level of reliability in asymptomatic individuals.
  9 6,123 162
Effect of a 6-week agility training program on performance indices of Indian taekwondo players
Amrinder Singh, Abhinav Sathe, Jaspal Singh Sandhu
September-December 2017, 17(3):139-143
Background: Taekwondo is a martial art sport requiring high level of agility, lower limb strength as it helps improve performance in activities. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of a 6-week agility training program on agility, anaerobic power, reaction time, balance, and flexibility of Indian taekwondo players. Subjects and Methods: Thirty elite national level taekwondo players (mean age 19.86 ± 1.81 years; mean height 1.70 ± 7 m; mean mass 60.36 ± 13.74 kg) volunteered and were randomly assigned into two groups, Group 1 (G1; n = 15) agility training group and Group 2 (G2; n = 15) control group. Both agility training group and control group were assessed for agility by illinois agility test; anaerobic power, lower limb reaction time, and balance assessed by kinematics measurement system; and flexibility assessed by sit and reach test. Control group had followed their routine training schedule, and agility training group had performed agility training for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of training, postmeasures were taken. Results: Significant changes (P < 0.05) in G1 group (agility training group) were observed in all the variables tested. No significant changes/decline in performance was found in G2 group (control group). Conclusion: This program significantly improved the performance indices and may be implemented as a regular part of the training schedule.
  9 10,167 392
Prevalence of low back pain among medical practitioners in a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh
Mohammad Almalki, Mohammed H Alkhudhayri, Ahmad A Batarfi, Shorowk K Alrumaihi, Shaker H Alshehri, Sami I Aleissa, Nader S Alkenani
September-December 2016, 16(3):205-209
Context: Lower back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal symptoms among health care providers. Aims: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the effects of LBP among medical practitioners in King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in KAMC in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (over six months period of time). The study included a group of physicians, surgeons, nurses, paramedics, and other medical practitioners of different nationalities. A survey was sent to 174 conveniently selected participants to be filled and completed. Both descriptive and inferential tests were reported. Chi-square, t-test, and ANOVA tests were used when appropriate. A P < 0.05 was identified as statistically significant for all the tests. Results: The lifetime prevalence of back pain among all the participants was found to be 83.9% (146). The mean age of participants was 33.5 ± 9.6. Male participants were 121 (71.2%). The sample included 114 (65.9%) medical doctors. It has been found that 135 (92.5%) of the study participants had a minimal disability, 10 (6.8%) had moderate disability, and only 1 (0.7%) had severe disability. Conclusions: Work-related complaints are a major issue facing employees and employers worldwide. It varies according to the type of work. LBP is a common problem that many workers suffer from. It is recommended to conduct further researches to study the burden of this problem in different aspects, such as psychological and social.
  8 9,308 386
A comparison and importance of auditory and visual reaction time in basketball players
Tejas P Ghuntla, Hemant B Mehta, Pradnya A Gokhale, Chinmay J Shah
January-June 2014, 14(1):35-38
Background: Present study aimed to compare and scientifically understanding the importance of visual and auditory reaction time in basketball players. Reaction is purposeful voluntary response to different stimuli as auditory or visual stimuli. In simple reaction time stimulus and response are one, while in choice reaction time stimulus and response are multiple. Materials and Methods: The visual and auditory reaction time was measured by the multiple choice apparatus in subjects. Simple reaction time and choice reaction time measured. Reaction time was measured in two sessions. In first session visual reaction time was measured and in second session auditory reaction time was measured. The results were statistically analyzed and were recorded as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and Student's paired t-test was applied to check the level of significance. Result and Conclusion: In the present study we found that auditory reaction time was less as compared to visual reaction time for both simple and choice visual reaction time tasks in basketball players. Since the auditory stimulus reaches the cortex faster than the visual stimulus; the auditory reaction time is faster than the visual reaction time. Reaction time is good indicator of quickness in sports. Faster reaction times are significant for better performance of athletes. Reaction time decreases by practice. Skills can be improved by practice. Sports person can practice regularly to improve their reaction time and ultimately their performance.
  8 118,762 578
Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch and muscle energy technique in the management of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder
Hariharasudhan Ravichandran, Janakiraman Balamurugan
May-August 2015, 15(2):170-175
Aims: To determine the efficacy of Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) technique and muscle energy technique (MET) in limiting pain and disability among subjects with adhesive capsulitis of shoulder. Settings and Study Design: A single centre experimental design study was done. A total 132 male subjects were screened. After fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria, with convenient sampling 60 subjects were selected for the study. Mean age of Groups A and B subjects were 46 and 50 years respectively. Double blinded baseline and post interventional (after 2 weeks) assessment was performed. Intervention includes Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique for group A and Muscle energy technique for group B. Outcome measures were recorded using University of Pennsylvania shoulder score (1st subset) and shoulder flexion, abduction, external rotation and internal rotation range of motion using an universal goniometer. Results: Inter group comparison were analyzed using Independent t test and one way analysis of variance was used to analyze pre intervention, and post interventional results after 1 and 2 weeks respectively. The level of significance will be set at P < 0.05. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique achieved significance in improving ROM and showed satisfactory results in university of Pennsylvania shoulder score when compared with muscle energy technique. Conclusion: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique was effective in relieving pain, restoring ROM and restoring function among subjects with adhesive capsulitis.
  7 19,364 989
Extended sitting can cause hamstring tightness
Ghulam Fatima, Muhammad Mustafa Qamar, Jawad Ul Hassan, Ayesha Basharat
May-August 2017, 17(2):110-114
Objective: Sedentary lifestyle has emanated as a new attention for research on exercise and health. The objective of this study was to find the correlation between prolonged sitting (minimum 6–8 h) and tightness of hamstrings in students. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 200 students were taken. Probability sampling was used on random basis to assess the flexibility of hamstring muscles using the straight leg raising (SLR) and active knee extension test. A manual goniometer was used for range measurement. All information was taken on predesigned pro forma. Result: The mean age of 200 students was 20.3 ± 1.63 years. The mean value of SLR was found to be 60.97 ± 10.21, and mean value of popliteal angle was 47.65 ± 8.06. Most of the students, 164 (82%), had tightness according to SLR test. There was a statistically significant difference between the popliteal angle and chair sitting hours (P = 0.010), and an inverse correlation was found between SLR angle and chair sitting hours (r = −0.56, P = 0.000). Conclusion: Tightness of hamstrings is observed in a majority of the students. Long-duration sitting can be a contributory factor in hamstring tightness.
  7 29,018 962
Effect of recovery modalities on blood lactate clearance
Lalita Sharma, M Ejaz Hussain, Shalini Verma
May-August 2017, 17(2):65-69
Recovery is an important tool for achieving an appropriate balance between training and competition stresses in maximizing the performance of athletes. Recovery modalities are being widely used as integral parts of the training programs of athletes to help in attaining this balance. This review examines the available evidence on efficacy of various modalities in enhancing recovery in athletic population with regard to their ability to improve the rate of blood lactate removal following high-intensity exercise. Modalities reviewed include massage therapy, contrast water therapy, active recovery, whole-body vibration therapy, pneumatic compression therapy, compression garments, and neuromuscular electrostimulation therapy.
  7 10,383 301
Lateral ankle sprain: A review
Shibili Nuhmani, Moazzam Hussain Khan
January-June 2014, 14(1):14-20
Ankle sprain injuries are the most common injury sustained during sporting activities. One-sixth of all sports injury loss time is from ankle sprains. Each year, an estimated 1 million persons, present to physicians with acute ankle injuries. Three-quarters of ankle injuries involve the lateral ligamentous complex, comprised of the anterior talofibular ligament, the calcaneofibular ligament, and the posterior talofibular ligament. Lateral ankle sprains typically occur when the rearfoot undergoes excessive supination on an externally rotated lower leg. The diagnosis of a sprain relies on the medical history including symptoms, as well as making a differential diagnosis mainly in distinguishing it from strains or bone fractures. Despite their prevalence in society, ankle sprains still remain a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the athlete, as well as in society in general. The high incidence of ligamentous ankle injuries requires clearly defined acute care and a broad knowledge of new methods in rehabilitation. In addition to rapid pain relief, the main objective of treatment is to quickly restore the range of motion of the ankle without any major loss of proprioception, thereby restoring full activity as soon as possible. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy, pathomechanics, investigation, diagnosis, management of lateral ankle sprains.
  6 12,693 402
The incidence, severity and etiology of injuries in players competing in the Saudi Premier League between 2010 and 2012
Mubarak Almutawa, Mark Scott, Keith P George, Barry Drust
July-December 2013, 13(2):90-97
Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence of injuries sustained by Saudi Premier League clubs over two consecutive competitive seasons (2010/11 and 2011/2012. Specifically, we compared injuries sustained in match play versus training and we provide an initial exploration of the impact of environmental conditions on match play injuries. Materials and Methods: A total of 198 players were studied (mean ± SD; age 28.2 ± 1.8 year; height 177.3 ± 1.0 cm; weight 71.6 ± 1.4 kg; body mass index 22.8 ± 0.3 kg/m 2 ). A prospective cohort design was used to investigate the injuries that occurred in training and match play. Injury definition was set at "any injury that resulted in medical attention or assessment, irrespective of the impact on time lost from subsequent football activity." Club medical staff recorded injuries and match play and training exposure on a standard proforma. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded for all games. Results: A total of 617 injuries were recorded at an incidence rate of 8.3 injuries/1,000 h player exposure. 355 injuries were recorded during training (5.5/1,000 h) and 262 during match play (29.7/1,000 h). For total injuries as well as subcategories of severity, location, type, recurrence, diagnosis and the role of contact, the incidence rate was substantially higher with match play. Post-hoc categorization of ambient weather suggests a greater risk of match play injury in hot (>30΀C) and dry (<50% relative humidity) conditions. Conclusion: This study detailed the total "medical-attention" injury load presented by professional football players to medical teams in 6 Saudi Premier League Clubs. Injury incidence was higher in match play than training and match play. This data provisionally indicates that injuries may be mediated by the prevailing environmental conditions.
  5 6,659 182
Benefits of physical activity for autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review
Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan
September-December 2016, 16(3):163-167
The purpose of this systematic review was to collect and synthesize evidence from the studies of physical activity (PA)-based interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Systematic search procedures identified 11 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of the following: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, and (c) outcomes. Across the corpus of studies, the preliminary search identified 47 studies and exercise was implemented with 115 male (76%) and 36 female (23%) with ASD, aged 4-19 years. A variety of exercise activities were employed (e.g., skating, jogging, horse and bike riding). Following the exercise interventions, decreases in stereotypy, aggression, off-task behavior, improved objective sleep on nights. There is a clear need for further systematic research to develop the way in which exercise prescription provided and increase the sample size those participate in PA. In conclusion, PA reduces stereotypy or self-stimulatory behavior and increases participation in more PAs.
  5 14,399 306
Exercise in polycystic ovarian syndrome: An evidence-based review
Disha Shetty, Baskaran Chandrasekaran, Arul Watson Singh, Joseph Oliverraj
September-December 2017, 17(3):123-128
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting female adolescent and adulthood globally. The most annoying complications of PCOS are obesity and infertility. Exercise is proved to be a best therapeutic and supportive management in PCOS patients in reducing infertility. Exercise reduces the risk and restores fertility and quality of life in PCOS patients through inducing hormonal changes of testosterone, androstenedione, combating obesity, metabolic syndrome, reducing inflammatory markers, and increasing immunity. Earlier systematic reviews and metaanalyses have proved the effectiveness of exercise in PCOS. This current systematic review will add to the current evidence of cumulative effects on exercise and shall be an update to the current proof of physical activity in PCOS patients.
  5 40,533 1,001
Fixation of anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fractures with arthroscopic suture bridge technique
Umesh Jadhav, Dhaval Gotecha
January-April 2017, 17(1):22-26
Purpose: Numerous techniques for treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fractures have been described in literature from closed reduction to definitive fixation, both open and arthroscopically assisted fixation. The present study aims to evaluate the clinical outcome of arthroscopic suture bridge fixation technique. Methods: The present retrospective study includes 31 patients with documented ACL avulsion fractures between 2008 and 2015. They all underwent arthroscopic suture bridge fixation by the same lead operating surgeon. The inclusion criteria were a displaced ACL avulsion fracture (Meyer and McKeever Types 3 and 4), with a minimum completed follow-up of 18 months. All patients were assessed with a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging to confirm the fracture. Results: Radiographs taken postoperatively showed that all avulsed fragments reduced were maintained and healing was evident in all cases by the end of 3 months. Clinically, no symptoms of instability were called for and no signs of ACL deficiency were elicited. Range of motion measurement showed a mean extension deficit of 2° (0-4) and a mean flexion deficit of 3° (1-6) when compared with the unaffected knee. The average Lysolm knee score was 98 (96-100). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated arthroscopic suture bridge fixation as a successful surgical intervention procedure for treatment of ACL avulsion fractures.
  4 10,863 256
The effect of 'Ballistic Six' plyometric training on performance of medium pace Asian Indian cricket bowlers
Amrinder Singh, Adkitte Roshan Gopal, Jaspal Singh Sandhu
July-December 2014, 14(2):94-98
Introduction: Cricket is one of the world's major team sports in terms of regular international games. Bowling action is a highly skilled activity acquired over years of fine tuning. The presence of an imbalance between the agonist and antagonist groups is one of the major risk factors for developing shoulder injuries in bowlers. Upper extremities account 25% and 22% of injuries in schoolboys and provisional cricket bowlers, respectively. "Ballistic six" plyometric training prevented shoulder injuries due to overhead throwing and improve its velocity in baseball pitcher. Purpose of study: The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of 8 weeks "Ballistic six" plyometric training on bowling velocity in medium pace cricket bowlers. National level medium pace cricket bowlers were given 8 weeks Ballistic Six plyometric training program. Average of 3 bowling velocities was taken using Bushnell (50 Hz) Doppler Radar Gun pre- and post-training program and compared. Results: The increase in bowling velocities following the 8 weeks training protocol was statistically significant (P < 0.05) when compared to the pre-training velocities. Conclusion: It is concluded that Ballistic Six plyometric training increases the bowling velocity in medium pace cricket bowlers hence improves their performance.
  4 11,550 322
The potential role of short-term heart rate variability tests in identifying risk of hypertension in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents
Sudipta Saha, Mahesh S Karandikar, Arunima Chaudhuri, Sibaprakash Mukherjee, Soumya Sarkar
January-April 2015, 15(1):62-67
Background: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular death and is primarily silent as there is hardly any symptom before target organ damage. Heredity and autonomic nervous system play pivotal roles in pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Aims: To detect early cardiovascular autonomic changes by heart rate variability (HRV) before overt hypertension, among the offspring having family history of essential hypertension. Materials and Methods: 34 normotensive offspring aged 19-24 years with parental history of essential hypertension were included as study group and the control group included 32 age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) matched normotensive offspring having normotensive parents. Resting pulse, blood pressure, and short-term supine HRV was recorded initially followed by standing HRV. Results: A statistically significant increase in resting diastolic blood pressure in study group indicated increased sympathetic tone. Postural stress in the study group revealed a greater increase (P < 0.0001) in low frequency (LF) spectrum and simultaneous greater decrease (P < 0.0001) in high frequency (HF) band as compared to control group (P < 0.05). These findings indicate greater dysfunction in both autonomic branches associated with alterations in baroreflex function in the study group. Conclusions: Current study provides an evidence of early impairments in autonomic cardiovascular regulation in young adults having hereditary history of hypertension. Early lifestyle modification with sports activity may help in improving autonomic functions and thus decrease morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases.
  4 7,433 140
Exercising with face mask during the pandemic: A qualitative analysis
Muhammad Shahidul Islam, Mohammad Hamidur Rahman, Anup De
September-December 2020, 20(3):59-63
A new respiratory virus known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (2019 novel coronavirus) is causing a respiratory disease epidemic worldwide. Many patients with COVID-19 had mild-to-severe respiratory failure and recovered without medical care. However, this respiratory infection can spread very rapidly by infected droplets when an individual is in close contact with others. A face mask is simple protective equipment that can minimize the transmission of infectious viruses, even though that person is asymptomatic. This study illustrates the benefits and drawbacks of having a face mask during the COVID-19 disease outbreak at athlete's workouts. After critically reviewing the various research papers (most of the research papers published in the year 2020), we considered the social distance to be the alternative for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 droplets. Face masks could be one way to minimize infected droplet entry. In this connection, previous researchers have found that exercise with a face mask requires adaptation time that can improve respiratory muscle strength. The present study recommends that athletes should wear a face mask while training at the open space if there is someone near the athlete.
  4 8,711 167
High-intensity interval training and cardiac autonomic modulation
Pooja Bhati, Jamal Ali Moiz
September-December 2017, 17(3):129-134
Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is associated with various pathological conditions and is characterized by hyperactive sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic imbalance may lead to increased morbidity and mortality from various diseases and conditions, including cardiovascular disease. Exercise training is a cornerstone intervention for impaired autonomic function. However, the form of exercise which elicits maximum benefits in a time-efficient manner is a contentious issue. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) includes high-intensity bouts interspersed with low-intensity recovery. This is more acceptable form of exercise since the overload placed by high intensity bout leads to optimal adaptations and recovery provided by intermittent nature makes it more tolerable. This review article explains the effect of HIIT on cardiac autonomic function and the possible mechanisms underlying its positive effect.
  4 6,744 159
Incidence and prevalence of weight lifting injuries: An update
Majed A Alabbad, Qassim I Muaidi
January-April 2016, 16(1):15-19
Weightlifting is considered as a dynamic strengthen exercise and power sport in which the athletes lifts a maximum weight with one repetition. The weightlifting as other sports has common musculoskeletal injuries in different body location corresponding to the sports beneficial. However, identifying the injuries incidence and the etiology is a first two-step in the model of the injury prevention in order to introduce preventive measures for sports. Therefore, this literature review is aimed to focus on the incidence and the etiology related to injuries of the weightlifting. However, the incidence injuries studies revealed that the children have more injuries related to accident than the adults. Whereas, the adults have more injuries related to strain and sprain. The most common injured locations are shoulder, lumbar spine, knee, elbow, hand, and wrist in the weightlifters. The percentage of the injuries according to location is the shoulder (36%), lumbar spine (24%), elbow (11%), and the knee (9%). In the other hand, the rule and regulation in the weightlifting had been changed since 1972 in which the clean and press lift eliminated from the competition due to the risk of this lift. Finally, weightlifting considered as safe sport if it is compared with other sports.
  4 17,092 497
Comparative study of fixation of proximal tibial fractures by nonlocking buttress versus locking compression plate
Dhiraj Girish Patil, Soumya Ghosh, Arunima Chaudhuri, Soma Datta, Chinmay De, Prasun Sanyal
May-August 2015, 15(2):142-147
Background: Management of tibial plate fracture represents a challenging problem in developing countries. Aims: To compare the results of treatment of tibial plateau fractures with conventional nonlocking buttress plates (BP group) and locking compression plates (LCPs). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 patients with intra-articular closed fractures of the proximal tibia who were alternately assigned to two different treatment protocol, conventional nonlocking BP group or locking plates (LP group). Results : Schatzker Type II fracture was found to be the commonest fracture type with 13 patients. Only lateral plating was done in 24 patients, and dual plating was done in 6 patients. In 8 patients, corticocancellous bone graft were used. On follow-up complications like superficial skin necrosis (two cases), infection (two cases), varus collapse (three cases) developed. Sixty percent in LCP group, 66.6% in buttress group fractures clinically united in the time period of 7-9 weeks and 73.3% in LCP group and 80% in buttress group radiological union occurred in a period of 12-15 weeks. The results were graded in accordance with Poul S. Rasmussen's grading system. During the follow-up, 73.3% in LCP group and 66.6% in buttress group had no pain after clinical union. 66.6% patients in LCP group and 73.3% in buttress group could perform normal walking. About 86.6%in each group had no lack of extension. Nine patients (60%) in LCP group and 10 patients (66.6%) had flexion of up to at least 140°. About 86.6% in LCP group and 80% in buttress group had a stable joint in extension. Conclusion: Considering its high cost, LP group should only be used, where it is more advantageous than conventional plate.
  3 5,361 232
Comparative study of treatment of fracture shaft femur by intramedullary interlocking nails through piriform fossa entry and tip of the greater trochanter entry approach
Soumya Ghosh, Joydeep Das, Arunima Chaudhuri, Akhilesh Kumar, Soma Datta, Chinmay De
May-August 2015, 15(2):148-152
Background: Several techniques and tools are available for achieving fracture reduction during antegrade intramedullary nailing of femur fractures. Aims: To compare results of femoral shaft fracture treatment with nailing through the greater trochanter to nailing through the piriformis fossa (PF). Materials and Methods: The present pilot project was conducted in a time span of 1-year. The patients admitted with femoral diaphyseal fractures were alternately selected for antegrade nailing through PF group and greater trochanter entry (GTE group) approach. Total number of patient in each group was 15 (n = 15). Results: Complications of nailing: PE group - 6.7% infection, 20% malunion, 20% delayed union, 20% restriction of hip range of motion (ROM), 6.7% restriction of knee ROM, 13.3% limb length discrepancy, 13.3% hardware prominence. GTE group - 13.3% malunion, 13.3% delayed union, 33.3% Restriction of hip ROM, 6.7% restriction of knee ROM, 20% limb length discrepancy, 26.7% hardware prominence. Radiological union time in PE was 12-15 weeks in 5 patients, 16-19 weeks in 8 patients, 20-23 weeks in 1 and >24 weeks in 1 patient. Radiological union time in GTE was 12-15 weeks in 4 patients, 16-19 weeks in 9 patients, 20-23 weeks in 2 patients. Need for dynamization was 20% in the PE group and 13.3% in GTE group. Thoresen's scoring system showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Femoral nailing through the greater trochanter with specifically designed nails and with attention to specific techniques for such insertion should be considered a rational alternative to femoral nailing through the PF with the benefit of reduced requirement for fluoroscopy and decreased operative time.
  3 4,593 102
Validation of short international physical activity questionnaire Punjabi version in India
Shweta Shenoy, Jasmine Kaur Chawla, Jaspal Singh Sandhu
July-December 2014, 14(2):77-82
Aim: The purpose of this study was to translate the short form international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) to the Punjabi language and evaluate the validity of Punjabi version of IPAQ-SF in India. Settings and Design: This was cross-sectional study conducted in Amritsar. Subjects and Methods: The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Punjabi language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to an expert committee for review and pretesting. The final product (Punjabi IPAQ-SF) was tested for concurrent and construct validity in a sample population of 100 apparently healthy adults. Statistical Analysis: Spearman coefficient correlation was applied using SPSS 17. Results: The Spearman coefficient ranged from (ρ = 0.994) to (ρ = 1.00), indicating good concurrent validity of Punjabi version of IPAQ-SF. High significant positive correlation was found for time spent (metabolic equivalent of task-min/week) in vigorous (ρ =1.00, P < 0.001), moderate (ρ = 0.995, P < 0.001), and walking (ρ = 0.999, P < 0.001) activities between Punjabi IPAQ-SF and original IPAQ-SF. Poor construct validity was observed with cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI). Total time spent in sitting (min/week) of Punjabi IPAQ-SF was significantly correlated to BMI was observed (ρ = 0.285, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The Punjabi IPAQ-SF indicated good concurrent validity among all the variables. The Punjabi IPAQ-SF can be used for physical activity assessment in India.
  3 8,724 270
Prevalence and pattern of sport injuries among college students in Delhi, India
Varun Kumar, Abha Mangal, Geeta Yadav, Deepak K Raut, Saudan Singh
July-December 2014, 14(2):109-114
Background: While the benefits of sport such as gain of fitness, reducing risk of diseases, or recreation are well-known among policy makers, relatively very little attention is paid to its unwanted side-effect, the injuries. Sports injuries are a burden to both individuals and the society. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the prevalence and pattern of sport injuries among college students in Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional and pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used. The study was primarily directed towards the members of sports teams (both intra- and intercollege teams) and athletes in selected college in Delhi and complete enumeration of the study subjects was performed. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results: The prevalence of sport injury was 73.4%. Males suffered more injuries than females. There was a significant statistical difference with age (P = 0.008), students of 20 years and above suffering more injuries than their younger participants. The prevalence of sport injuries was more among those who do not have coaches (P = 0.001, odds ratio (OR) 3.49) and also those who did not receive any formal training (P = 0.000, OR 2.26). Only 68.8% took some form of treatment and very few (26.1%) practiced injury preventive measures. Conclusion: A diligent search for factors contributing to sports injuries is essential for injury management. Attention to preventive measures and appropriate supervision will allow youngsters to continue to enjoy sports in a safer way.
  3 21,221 541
Comparison of dynamic and static stretching on dynamic balance performance in recreational football players
Zafar Azeem, Rahul Sharma
July-December 2014, 14(2):134-139
Background: Football is the world's most popular sport with new players added every year. Recreational football is considered to as health promotion activity for untrained subjects. With the requirement of maintaining balance over one leg at different stages of the game, football players are expected to have superior unipedal stability. Stretching, either static or dynamic, has proven to be of utmost significance as a warm strategy. However, experiemental trials on evaluation of acute effects on dynamic balance are seen limited in scope and implementation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dynamic and static stretching on dynamic balance performance in recreational football players. Materials and Methods: Thiry male recreational football players participated in the study. Subjects who participated in a minimum of one football session per week for the preceding two months were included in the study on the condition that they should not participate in a structured training or exercise session from last 2 months. Subjects were divided intotwo groups. Group A(n=15) were given dynamic stretching of ankle plantaflexors, hamstrings, quadriceps, hip adductors, hip flexors and hip extensors.Group B(n=15) were given static stretching of same muscle groups. Star excursion balance test was used as main outcome measure. Results: Paired t-tests were used for pre and post score measures for within group comparisons. Independent t-tests was used for comparison of pre and post test score difference for between group comparisons. Significant difference was found between pre and post normalized combined composite scores of SEBT within group A (P<0.001) and Group B(P<0.001). There was non significant difference between the combined normalized composite scores for between group comparisons (P=0.901). Conclusion: Both dynamic stretching and static stretching are equally effective in improving dynamic balance performance in recreational football players. However, the nature of dynamic stretching being more functional , it may prove to have better compliance and acceptability by the coaches and players and may also be used as a preventive strategy for injury management.
  3 7,807 257
Plantar fasciitis: A review of literature
Purnima Gautham, Shibili Nuhmani, Shaji John Kachanathu
July-December 2014, 14(2):69-73
Plantar fasciitis (PF) is one of the most common causes of inferior heel pain managed by many physical therapists in a variety of clinical settings and wildly treated conservatively and it is usually caused by a biomechanical imbalance resulting in tension along the plantar fascia. It is estimated that 11-15% of all foot complaints requiring medical attention can be attributed to this condition. In general, the patient presents with inferior heel pain on weight bearing. Pain associated with PF may be throbbing, searing, or piercing, especially with the first few steps in the morning or after periods of inactivity. This article presents on overview of the current knowledge on PF and focuses on biomechanics, etiology, diagnosis and treatment strategies, conservative treatment including the physical therapy management are discussed. This information should assist health care practitioners who treat patients with this disorder.
  3 12,069 528
* Source: CrossRef